MapsRussiaInEurope: 1550 - 1948 Maps showing all of European Russia
1799 "Генеральная Карта части России
Разделенная на Губернии и уезды с
изображением почтовых и других главных
дорог / Сочинена и гравирована в 1799
году при собственном ЕИВ Депо Карт."
(Map of the United Nations General Russia
Divided into provinces and districts with the
image of postal and other main roads... St.
Petersburg Map Depot), 112 x 109 cm., pasted
on green silk , edged with red cloth, from the
Imperial Hermitage Foreign Library. See
Reymann's 1802 version of this map. From the
National Library of Russia
1802 Daniel Gottlob
"General Karte von
einem Theil des Russi-
schen Reichs..." 107 x
127 cm, on linen, based
on the 1799 Cyrillic
1812 Tobias Conrad
von West Russland,"
Augsburg, 53.4 x
73.8 cm. From cesgia
on eBay, Old Times Rare
Antiquarian Books &
1818 John Pinkerton (cartographer):
"Russia In Europe," 28 x 20 inches,
from the Philadelphia edition of his
"A modern atlas, from the latest and
best authorities..." From
1822 Friedrich Haller von
Hallerstein and C.G. Reichard
(mapmakers) - Friedrich Campe
(publisher): "Charte des Russischen
Reichs, Europaischen Antheils..."
Nürnberg, 31 x 25 cm, from "Neuer
Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der
Erde." From www.davidrumsey.com
1824 Tranquillo Mollo
(publisher): "Karte von
Russland in Europa," Vienna,
From his "Lehrbuch der
Geographie, 2nd Ed., pg 85.
1812 Aaron Arrow-
publisher) - Thomas
& Andrews (publishers):
"Russia in Europe,"
Boston, 25 x 20 cm,
Map of Russia in
Europe, an elegant
atlas..." From www.
1796 Franz Johann
Joseph von Reilly (pub-
lisher) - Vinzenz G. Kin-
inger (mapmaker): "Karte
von dem Russischen
Reiche in Europa," Vienna,
63 x 79 cm, from his
"Grosser Deutscher Atlas."
Shows Russian acquisition
of lands from the First,
1772, Partiton. From
1815 John Thomson: "European
Russia," London, Edinburgh, 61 x
50 cm, for his "New general atlas."
1817 A. Arrowsmith
publisher) - Hall (engraver):
"Russia in Europe" London.
Arrowsmith now has labeled
gubernias, albeit the Wilno
and Grodno gs. without the
correct "Litva" preceding
their names. From
This page is devoted to maps called “Russia in Europe” – showing all of European Russia, not just a guberniya or two -- beginning when Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) lands began being incorporated into the Russian
Empire following the First, 1772, Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and continuing, showing administrative changes within Russia, until 1918. Mapmakers are almost always late to depict boundary
changes, unless they are located, and published, in a concerned country, so what follows is my own research of what actually happened as a result of the partitions and later. (I have written a series of six articles
on this subject, now hosted at: New York Map Society.) Here’s what actually happened:
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) land losses in the First, 1772, Partition:
- All of [Polish-Lithuanian] Livonian Province (Lith.: Livonijos vaivadija; Pol.: W. Inflantskie) – also called Polish-Lithuanian Livonia, Polish Livonia and Inflanty Province. Part of the GDL since 1561, this area in
1569, under the terms of the Union of Lublin, became jointly administered with the Kingdom of Poland. The key city was called “Dyneburg” in 18th century Polish, “Daugpilis” in Lithuanian, “Dünaburg” in German
(its “official” name from 1275- 1893, because, even within the Russian Empire, Baltic Germans held sway in the region), “Двинcк” (Dvinsk) in Russian (from 1893-1920), and “Daugavpils” in Latvian, from 1920 on.
- Most of Polotsk Province (Lith.: Polocko vaivadija; Pol: W. Polockie) – everything north of the Daugava (Dvina) river, including its capital, Polotsk, on the northeast bank of the Daugava, and a vassal of Lithuania
since 1240. The area was recaptured by Russians from 1563-78 and 1654-60. Polotsk was “Polacky” in 18th century Polish, “Пóлоцк” on Russian maps of the 18th to 20 centuries and “Пóлацк” in today’s Belarus.
- Nearly all of Vitebsk Province (Lith.: Vitebsko vaivadija; Pol.: W. Witebskie) – except for a sliver of land west of the Dnieper river. The province had been controlled by Lithuanians since the 13th century, and
became a GDL province in 1503. Lost was the city of Vitebsk: “Witebsk” in 18th century Polish, “ВÍтебск” on 18th – 20th century Russian maps, and “Віцебск” in today’s Belarus.
- All of Mstislaw (pr. MIS-tih-slahf) Province (Lith.: Mstislavio vaivadija; Pol.: W. Mscislawskie), conquered by Lithuanians in 1358. The first Lithuanian duke of the province was Karigaila, brother of Jogaila.
- Less than 1/4 of Minsk Province (Lith.: Minsko vaivadija), the part east of the Dnieper river. Minsk had been a fief of Lithuanian tribes since the 12th century, and a formal part of the GDL since the 14th.
Aftermath of the First, 1772, Partition in annexed areas: The GDL’s 11 provinces had been stable for hundreds of years – now everyone in two provinces: Polish-Lithuanian Livonia and Mstislaw, most every-
one in another two provinces: Vitebsk and Polotsk, and folks in the easternmost part of a fifth province: Minsk, had to deal with a new, Russian, administration. Two new Russian guberniyas were created for the annexed
lands of the GDL:
- Polish-Lithuanian Livonia and the annexed parts of Vitebsk and Polotsk provinces became part of a newly-created – and short-lived – Russian governorate, or guberniya: Pskov, which also i ncluded two districts
removed from the existing Russian Novgorod guberniya. It soon became apparent that Pskov guberniya was too big to be effectively administered, so Catherine the Great decreed, in 1776, that it be divided in two:
a new, smaller, Pskov guberniya, and a new Polotsk guberniya.
- Mogilev guberniya was also formed in 1772, from parts of the provinces of Vitebsk, Polotsk, Minsk and all of Mstislaw.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) land losses in the Second, 1793, Partition:
- The remaining three-quarters of the Minsk Voivodeship (Minsko vaivadija) -- the part west of the Dnieper River (Lith.: Dniepras upė), including the city of Minsk.
- The remaining slice of Polotsk Voivodeship (Polocko vaivadija) – the part south of the Daugava river -- not taken by Russia in the First Partition.
- The remaining slice of Vitebsk Voivodeship (Vitebsko vaivadija) – the part west of the Dnieper river – not taken by Russia in the First Partition.
- The eastern third of Vilnius Voivodeship (Vilnaus vaivadija), in the GDL since 1413.
- The eastern half of Nowogródek Voivodeship (Naugarduko vaivadija), part of the GDL since 1507.
- The eastern half of Brest Litovsk Voivodeship (Brastos vaivadija), originally created in 1566 from the southern-most part of Trakai Voivodeship (Trakų vaivadija).
Aftermath of the Second, 1793, Partition in annexed areas:
- Minsk guberniya (Rus.: Минская г.) was created in 1793 and lasted virtually unchanged until 1921, with these two exceptions: in 1842 Grodno guberniya ceded Novogrudok uyezd to Minsk guberniya. In 1843,
two Minsk uyezds, Vileyka and Disna, were absorbed by Vilna guberniya.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) losses in the Third, 1795, Partition: Austrian, Prussian, and Russian representatives (no one represented the Commonwealth!) met on October 24, 1795, to dissolve the
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. A treaty was finally signed January 26, 1797. The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Užnemunė (kairiajame Nemuno krante, iš esmės sutapusi su Suvalkija), calling it New East Prussia:
Neuostpreußen. The Empire of Russia took the area west to the Baltic and the eastern/northern bank of the Nemunas, excluding the Prussian Kingdom’s Memelland. It also annexed Courland. Specifically, it annexed:
- The remaining, western, two-thirds of Vilnius Voivodeship (Vilnaus vaivadija).
- The remaining, western, half of Nowogródek Voivodeship (Naugarduko vaivadija).
- The remaining, western, half of Brest Litovsk Voivodeship (Brastos vaivadija).
Aftermath of the Third, 1795, Partition in the annexed areas:
- Former GDL lands -- including Augustavas (Pol.: Augustów) and Suvalkija (Pol.: Suwałki ) and now in New East Prussia were, in 1806, both conquered by Napoleon and overrun in the Greater Poland Uprising.
The 1807 Treaty of Tilsit divided those former GDL lands, then called Belostok (Białystok) Dept., consisting of Białystok, Bielsk, Bobrz, Dombrowa, Drohiczyn, Kalwary, Lomza, Mariampol, Surasz and Wygry. All
but Bialystok went to the Duchy of Warsaw, which the 1815 Congress of Poland gave to "Congress Poland," and they remained in nominal Polish hands until WWI. The area of Białystok was, from 1807 to 1842,
Belostok Oblast, within the Russian Empire, after which it was merged into Grodno guberniya.
- Russia divided the remaining territories of the GDL between Vilna and Slonim guberniyas, but on December 12, 1796 the two were merged into one, called the Litva guberniya (Rus.: Литовская г.), its capital
in Vilna. On September 9, 1801 Litva g. was divided into the Litva-Vilna g. and the Litva-Grodno g., which lasted until 1840, when Litva/Lithuania was dropped from both names -- when "Lithuania" really
did drop from the map of Europe. In 1843, an administrative reform created the Kovno g. (Rus.: Ковенская г.) out of seven western districts of the Vilna g., including all of Žemaitija. Vilna g. (Rus.: Виленская г.)
got three additional districts: Vileyka and Dzisna from the Minsk g. and Lida from Grodno g. (Rus.: Гродненская г.)
Other guberniya histories of interest to this site -- and especially to this page -- and its geographic focus:
- Estland g. (Rus.: Эстляндская г.) the name given 1796 to Reval g., legally created 1721 from territories conquered from Sweden in the Great Northern War. Northern Livonia was included after 1917.
- Liefland g. (Rus.: Лифляндская г.) created in 1796, succeeding Riga g., legally created 1721.
- Courland g. (Rus.: Курля́ндская г.) created in 1795 out of the territory of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia.
- Grodno g. (Rus.: Гродненская г.) formed 1796, after the Third Partition, originally known as Slonim g., which existed until December, 1796, when it was merged it with Vilna g. to form Litva g.
- Mogilev g. (Rus.: Могилёвская г.)was formed in 1772, after the First Partition, from parts of the voivodeships of Witebsk, Mścisław, Połock and Inflanty. Parts of these territories were also used to form the
Pskov g.. In 1796, Mogilev and Polotsk g's were united to form Belorussia g. In 1802, Belorussian g. was divided into Vitebsk g. and Mogilev g.
1827 Adrien Hubert Brue:
"Carte de la Russie Occidentale
et du Roy.me de Pologne,"
Paris, dated 1827 on the map.
From Brue's "Atlas universel
de geographie physique,
politique, ancienne &
1824 James Wyld (mapmaker) -
John Thomson (publisher):
"Russia in Europe," Edinburgh,
37 x 26 cm, at 1:17 500 000,
from the 2nd edition of
Thomson's "A General Atlas."
From www. davidrumsey.com
1828 Adrien Hubert Brue:
"Carte generale de la Russie
d'Europe, du Royaume de
Pologne, des environs de Caucase
et d'une partie des pays
adjacents, " Paris, 53 x 39 cm,
dated 1828. From
1635 Jodocus Hondius:
"Russia cum Confinijs,"
London, 8 x 6 inches,
from an English edition of
"Atlas Minor." Note the
presence of "Lithvania"
and the absence of Poland.
1858 Peterman: "Karte vom
Europäischen Russland zur
übersicht der bis 1858 ausge-
Aufnahmen" (Map of European
Russia illustrating types of
surveys), Gotha, published by
Justus Perthes. From www.
1918 C.S. Hammond & Company
(publisher): " Large Scale Map of
Russia in Europe," New York, 80 x
67 cm, in a linen-backed folding
map. Note the labeling of
"Esthonians," "Letts," "Lithuanianis"
and "White Russians." From the US
Library of Congress: www.loc.gov
1602 Abraham Ortelius -
Franz Hogenberg: "RVSS-
IÆ, MOSCOVIÆ ET TAR-
TARIÆ," Antwerp, based
Jenkinson. See Marco
Polo's travels. From
1596 Giovanni Magini
(publisher) - Girolamo
IMPERIUM," Venice, full
page: 7.1 x 9.6 inches.
1635 Willem Blaeu:
Engraved by Hessel
Gerritsz in 1613, based
on Isaac Massa. Blaeu
acquired the plate after
Gerritsz's death in 1632.
1640 Matthäus Merian:
"Tabula RUSSIÆ." from
Merian's edition of the
Hessel Gerritsz map of
Russia. From National
Library of Finland:
1670 Isaac Massa -
TABULA Authore Isaaco
Massa," London. From
the Moses Pitt "English
1676 John Speed: "A Map
of Russia," London, 20 x
16 inches, (drawn from
Blaeu's maps) from
"Speed's Prospect of The
Most Famous Parts of the
1729-30 Herman Moll:
"... Moscovy, Poland, Little
Tartary, and ye Black Sea
&c..," London, 23.75 x 38
inches. From Norman
Leventhal Map Collection at the
Boston Public Library via
1893 Walter Graham
Blackie: "RUSSIA IN
from Blackie & Son's
"Descriptive Atlas of the
World and General
Geography." Also a
DETAIL image. AK
1908 "RUSSIA IN EUROPE,"
London, 21 x 13.5 inches /
54 x 34 cm, from G.W.
Bacon's "Bacon's Popular
Atlas of the World." Three
DETAIL images. From
Andrews Old Maps and Prints,
1908 Harmsworth Atlas:
"Central & South Russia." From
Federation of East European Family
History Societies: www.feefhs.org
1911 The London Geographical
Institute: "RUSSIA IN EUROPE,"
published by George Philip & Son.
From the Probert online atlas
1916 "(Railway Map,
European Russia)" with a
detail inset of Lvov. From
1921 Hammond Atlas:
"RUSSIA, POLAND, LITHU-
ANIA, LETVIA, ESTHONIA,
1808 Jaspar Nantiat (cartographer) -
William Faden (cartographer/
publisher): "The Russian Dominions
in Europe...from the Russian Atlas of
1806," St. Petersburg, 42.5 x 37
inches / 107.95 x 93.98 cm. After
Faden's 1836 death, this map's plates
were acquired by James Wyld, who
issued this map in several editions.
1852 George Philip & Son: "Russia
in Europe," Liverpool, 65 x 52 cm.
Seriously inaccurate and out of
date, with Vilna and Troki in Minsk
g., and former Lithuanian lands in
Congress Poland since 1815 shown
as "Duchy of Warsaw." From
1809 Депо карт (Map
Depot): "Дорожная карта
(Road Map of the Russian
Empire). From the National
Library of Estonia: www.nlib.
1827 (dated 1826) Christian Gott-
fried Daniel Stein (engraver/car-
tographer) - J.C. Hinrichs (publish-
er): "Charte von dem Europӕisch-
Russischen Reiche..," Leipzig, 50 x
39 cm, from "Neuer Atlas Der
Ganzen Welt..." From www.
1832 John Arrowsmith: "Russia &
Poland," London, 62 x 50 cm, from
"The London atlas of universal
geography." Note the correct
inclusion of the Białystok Oblast as
a separate entity within the
Empire of Russia. From www.
1619 Gerard Mercator:
"RVSSIA cum Confinijs,"
Amsterdam, 14 x 19
inches, from his "Atlas
1696 Nicolaes Visscher I:
"MOSCOVIÆ seu RUSSIÆ
MAGNÆ Generalis Tabula
dam, 16.3 x 20.7 inches,
from "Atlas Minor." From
1757 Didier Robert de
Vaugondy: "Partie Septen-
trionale de la Russie Euro-
péenne..," Paris, drawn in
1753 from new surveys
and published in the 1757
edition of his "Atlas
Universel." From National
Library of Finland:
to the Price of
the Great Post
map 81 x 97
cm. From www.
1837 Conrad Malte-Brun
(mapmaker) - Aime Andre
(publisher): Russie d'Europe,"
Paris, from Malte-Brun's "Atlas
Complet Du Precis De La
Geographie Universelle." From
1831 Anthony Finley (publisher):
"Russia In Europe," Philadelphia,
from "A New General Atlas
Comprising a Complete Set of
Maps, representing the Grand
Divisions Of The Globe..." Note
colored boundaries of Vitebsk g.
1832 John C. Dower: "Russia in
Europe," Edinburgh, London, from
"A General Descriptive Atlas Of
The Earth, Containing Separate
Maps Of The Various Countries
And States..," London and
Edinburgh. From www.
1837 Fedor Fedorovich Shubert (mapmaker) -
General- quartiermeisterstab (Quartermaster
General Staff): "Sheets 1 - 16 Kriegsstrassen Karte
eines Theiles von Russland und der angraenzenden
laender" (Military map of European Russia and
neighboring countries), Vienna. Individual maps:
Top: "IV: Stockholm"; Middle: "VII Königsberg;"
Bottom: title page. Complete map: 246 x 175 cm.
See 1870 updates. From www.davidrumsey.com
1851 Maj. Carl Christian Franz
Radefeld: "Europaeisches Russland -
entworfen und gezeichnet vom
Hauptm. Radefeld. 1851," Hildburg-
hausen, 35.4 x 29.8 cm, from
"Meyer's Grosser Zeitungs-Atlas."
1864 James Wyld: "Russia in
Europe including Poland,"
London, 33 x 27 cm, from "Atlas
of the World," first published
1836. From www.davidrumsey.com
1875 Geographisches Institut,
Weimar: "Das Europäische
Russland," Weimar, 59 x 58 cm,
from volume two of two: "Grosser
Hand-Atlas des Himmels und der
Erde (Great Hand-Atlas of Heaven
and Earth)." From
1875 Augustus Peterman (engraver/
mapmaker): "Ost-Europa..," Gotha,
Sweden, 105 x 84 cm, from Adolph
Stieler's "Hand-Atlas Über Alle
Theile Der Erde..." (Hand atlas over
all the parts of the Earth) first
published 1817. From
1786 Louis Brion de la
Tour: "Russie d'Europe,
Divisée par Gouver-
nemens," Paris, 23.6 x
19.3 cm. Despite the pub-
lication date, the map de-
picts pre-1772 borders.
From cesgia on eBay
c. 1865 P. van Bommel:
EN POLEN," The
Netherlands, 8.3 x
10.2 inches, as an
theprintscollector on eBay
c. 1869 William &
in Europe," London
most likely from
"Atlas to accompany
printsandmaps on eBay
1785 Carington Bowles (publisher): "Bowles's New One-
Sheet Map of the Russian Empire In Europe..." and
"Bowles's New Pocket Map of the Russian Empire In
Europe..." London, depicting pre-First, 1772, Partition
1929 London Geographical Institute (mapmaker): "Russia in Europe: General,"
and "Western Russia," London, both from "Cassell's New Atlas of the World."
What's interesting about both these maps is that, in an atlas published in 1929,
they both show boundaries for Russia in 1914, and inaccurate boundaries for
Poland in 1929. Both maps from printsandmaps on eBay
1801 - 1881 Ward - Prothero-
Leathes -Benians (editors):
"Russia in Europe in the 19th
Century," from the 1912
"Cambridge Modern History
Atlas." From the Perry-Castañeda
1833 Adolf Stieler - Justus Perthes
(publisher): "Europӕisches RUSSLAND
auch Schweden u. Norwegen," Gotha,
Sweden, 33 x 40 cm, from "Stieler's Hand-
Atlas, No. 37." See "Wilno" and "Grodno"
guberniyas, whose names, from 1801-40
were "Litva-Viino" and "Litva-Grodno."
c. 1807 Eustache
Hérisson: "La Russie 2
Feuille," 18 x 21 cm.
1840 John Bartholomew
(engraver) - George Philip & Son
(publisher): "Russia in Europe,"
Liverpool. Note the label "Russian
Poland," which includes the
guberniyas "Wilno," "Minsk,"
"Grodno," "Volhynia," Podolia," and
"Kifv." From The National Library of
1840 J. & C. Walker (engravers) -
Society for the Diffusion of Useful
Knowledge (SDUK) (carto-
graphers) - Chapman & Hall
(publisher): "Russia in Europe,"
London, 40 x 33 cm. From
1887 J. Bartholomew: "RUSSIA
IN EUROPE," published by J.
Walker, London. From Federation of
East European Family History Societies:
1852 Adolph Stieler (editor) - F.
Stulpnagel (engraver) - Justus
Perthes (publisher): "Europaeisches
Russland," Gotha, 35 x 51 cm, from
"Hand - Atlas Uber Alle Theile Der
Erde nach dem neuesten Zustande
Und Uber Das Weltgebaude." From
1856 George Wool-
New York, 33 x 41
cm, from Colton's A
tlas of the World..."
1859 Auguste- Henri
Dufour: "CARTE DE LA
Paris, 20 x 16.5 inches.
From Martin2001 on eBay
Blackie: "RUSSIA IN
EUROPE." From "The
Imperial Atlas of
1877 Donald Mackenzie Wallace (editor/foreign correspondent for The
Times of London) - Petter Cassell & Galpin (publisher): "Russia, Showing
Density of Population," and "Russia, Showing Zones of Vegetation,"
London, two maps (updated by Petter Cassell & Galpin from maps
originally published in the London newspaper Weekly Dispatch) from his
two-volume book, written after having lived in Russia from early 1870
until late 1875. It was very successful and went through many editions.
From the British Library via wikimedia
1944 C.S Hammond (mapmaker):
"Union of Soviet Sociailst Republics,
European Part," from the
"Encyclopaedia Britannica World
Atlas," showing USSR-occupied areas
in the Baltic States and Poland. From
1913 [original publication date] -
1943 [date of this copy] Igor
Simonovitch: "Carte des Voies de
Communication par Terre, par Eau,
et par Fer de la Russie d'Europe.
Edition de la Section des Statistiques
et de Cartographie du Ministere des
Communications 1913" (Map of the
Paths of Communication by Earth, by
Water, and by Iron of the Russia of
Europe. Edition of the Statistics and
Mapping Section of the Ministry of
Communications 1913), Brussels.
Color lithograph privately published by the author,
February 1943 as a cyan-blue photo- graphic print
with full original hand colour, on 36 un-joined
sheets, each 36 x 30 cm (14 x 12 inches); if joined
they would form a map: 210 x 183 cm (82.5 x 72
inches). From Antiquariat Dasa Pahor GbR:
1692 Hubert Jaillot: "La
Russie Blanche ou Mosco-
vie Divisee Suivant l'
Estendue Des Royaumes
Duches..," Paris, 35 x 23
inches, in two joined
sheets, based on the work
of Nicolas Sanson. From
1760 Johannes Treskot
(many name variations for
this Russian cartographer
of English origin): "Tabula
Russici..." St. Petersburg.
1614 Hessel Gerritsz:
"Russiae ex autographo..,"
Amsterdam, the second
state of his 1613 map (due
to inset plan of Moscow)
based on the manuscripts
of Czar Fyodor II Godunov.
1838 Nicolaus Godfried van
Kampen (mapmaker) - Baarsel &
Zoon (engravers) - Erven F. Bohn
(publisher): "Europisch Rusland,"
Haarlem. From the British Library via
1651 [dated] Nicolaes I
Piscator (Visscher): "Tab-
ula Russiӕ..," Amster-
dam, 21. 5 x 17 inches,
depicting Russia during
the Time of Troubles:
1598-1613. From www.
1851 John Tallis: "Russia in
Europe," London, 10 x 13
inches, with beautiful
vignettes related to the area,
from Napoleon's retreat to a
Russian bear. From
1909 [dated 1903] A.F. Marksa (publisher) -
Eduard Iulevic Petri (compiler/editor):
"Состав: Карта Евро- пейской России. Лист
1-16" ( Composite: Karta Evropey- skaia
Rossiia. Sheet 1-16). From www.david rumsey.com
|1865 1st Edition
Antiquariat Daša Pahor:
|1872 3rd Edition
Library of the Univ. f Chicago:
Heinrich Kiepert (historian/geographer): "Karte des Russischen Reichs in
Europa in 6 Blattern..."Vorzüglich nach der 1862 von der K. Russischen
geogr. Gesellschaft in St. Petersburg in 12 Bl. herausgegebenen Karte," Berlin,
with the first, 1865 edition dissected into 24 sections, mounted upon 2 sheets
of linen, measuring 142 x 124 cm / 56 x 49 inches; the 1872 3rd edition
133 x 116 cm., on 6 sheets 52 x 66 cm. Other editions 1868, 1872, and 1893.
1880 Дубровский (A.V. Dubrovskīĭ)
(cartographer): "Карта европейского
россии..." St. Petersburg, showing
percentage of school-age girls attending
rural schools in European Russia. From the
Library of the Univ. f Chicago:
Ward: "Russia Terri-
1725 - 1795," Lon-
don, from 1912
History Atlas." From
1562 [dated] Anthony
Jenkinson (mapmaker) -
Nicholas Reynolds (engraver):
"Nova absolvtaqve Rvssiӕ,
Moscoviӕ et Tartariӕ..."
London, 82 x 102 cm, in four
sheets, copied in varying
degrees of faithfulness, and
reduced in size, by Ortelius, de
Jode, and others, all of whom
credit Jenkinson as a source.
Long thought lost, a copy was
found in Poland in 1987. From
Krystyna Szykuła, Univ. of Wrocław,
Poland, and her paper online at http:
c. 1570-92 Franz Hogen-
berg (engraver) - Abraham
Ortelius: Rvssiae, Mosco-
viae et Tartariae..," Ant-
werp, 17.5 x 14 inches,
giving credit to Jenkin-
son's 1562 map. From
Australian coat-of-arms to
honor the map's sponsor
1833 государственный университет
путей сообщения - ГУПС (State
ЕВРОПЕЙСКОЙ РОССИИ" (Hydro-
graphic Map of European Russia), St.
Petersburg, in a folding hydrographic
map depicting Imperial Russia's
extensive canal network. Also a higher-
definition detail map of administrative
department "V" -- roughly the same
boundaries as the former Grand Duchy
of Lithuania. Descriptive side panels list
canals and transportation on large
rivers. Long-term goal: links between the
Caspian, Black, Baltic, and White Seas.
"Russie et Po-
logne," from Vi-
Hugo Allard and his son, Carel, were Amsterdam
engravers/publishers. Both maps -- from the same
plate -- are based on the work of Isaac Massa, Dutch
traveller and diplomat, and envoy to Muscovy.
Both maps from www.raremaps.com
"Novissima Russiӕ Vulgo
1677 Pierre Duval :
"Moscovie dite autre-
ment Grande et Blanche
Russie," Paris, 20 x 15.5
1651 Gerard Mercator
(mapmaker) - Jan
Jansson: "Russia cum
Confinijs," 7.8 x 5.6
inches, from Jansson's
"Atlas Minor." From
1812 Pierre Lapie (geogrpher/
publisher) - P.A.F. Tardieu (engraver):
"Carte de la Russie d'Europe: avec...la
Prusse, le Grand Duche de Varsovie..."
Paris, dissected into 48 sections and
mounted on cloth, 166 cm x 167 cm /
5.4 x 5.5 feet. The map was prepared
in anticipation of Napoleon's disastrous
invasion of Russia, and was based on
Russian surveys smuggled out of the
official Russian map depository in St.
Petersburg. From www.davidrumsey.com,
with additional commentary from
1913 Augustus Herman Petermann (original geographer/
engraver/ mapmaker) - Paul Langhans (cartographer, mapmaker
of a reduced version of Petermann's map)) - Justus Perthes
(publisher): "Handel und Industrie im Europaischen Russland,“
Gotha, coded to illustrate trade and industry in European
Russia. Petermann's original map: "Commercial and Industrial
Map of European Russia," was based on statistical data for 1900
compiled by B. P. Semenov-Tian Shanski. Errors in this
reduction: 1. the economic units north of Wyasniki (using the
German transliteration) in region 21 and east of Sergatsch in
region 30 are shown in green stippling, which is not in the color
key; 2. various units are left without color: regions 15, 28, 37
and 73; 3. lakes in the westernmost division of region 2 are
colored instead of the correct white. From www.raremaps.com
1917 Carl Flemming (publisher):
"Europäisches Russland Übersicht
alle russische Kriegsschauplätze in
Europa und im Kaukasus"
(...Overview of all Russian theaters
of war) Berlin, with frontlines in
Autumn 1914, 1915 and Feb-
ruary 1917. From Staatsbibliothek zu
Berlin via wikimedia
1700 Edward Wells
(geographer) - James
Moxon (engraver): "A
New Map of Denmark,
Norway, Sweden &
Moscovy..," Oxford, from
his "A New Sett of Maps
Both of Antient and
Present Geography." From
(Divisions of Russia,
on inspection). See
(end, 1796, to
1794 Robert Wilkin-
lisher): "Russia in
9 x 11 1/2 inches,
Russia gained from
the Grand Duchy
after the First, 1772,
1681 Sir Jonas Moore
rapher/surveyor) - Moll
(engraver) - Robert Scott
London, 8.5 x 6.5 inches,
from "A New Geography."
c. 1735 Henry Overton II
& John Hoole (publish-
ers): "A New Correct Map
of Poland, Moscovy, Little
Tartary and the Black
and Caspian Seas," Lon-
don, 35 x 23 inches.
Mostly a copy of the
1729-30 Moll map. From
1922 Lawrence Martin
Socialist Federated Soviet
Republic 1922," Washing-
ton, DC. The caption on
the map explains how the
map was created, based
on official Russian
sources. Note that the
Vilnius area is within
Lithuania, and the tiny
area ascribed to "White
Russia." From U.S. Library
of Congress: www.loc.gov
1737 [dated] Nicolas de
publisher): "Carte Pour
Polonois...et des Mosco-
vites..," Paris, 22.5 x
20.5 inches. From
1789 Franz Johann
Joseph von Reilly
"Des Russischen Reiches
oder das Herzogthum
Liefland Reval oder das
Nro. 65," Vienna, from
"Schauplatz der fünf
Theile der Welt..." From
the National Library of
1790 Franz Johann
Joseph von Reilly :
"Gen- eral-Karte von
Reiche in Europa
Nro. 60." Vienna,
from his "from his
fünf Teile der Welt,"
2nd state of the
plate. From Antiquar-
iat Steffen Völkel
1595 Gerard Mercator:
"Rvssia cum confinijs,"
19 x 14 inches, his first
map of Russia, which
includes Livonia and
1842 [dated] Андрей Макаров (Andrei
Makarov) - Военно-топографический
институт (Military Topographic
Institute): "Почтовая карта Российской
Империи. Часть 1" (Postal map of the
Russian Empire, Sheet 1) (Sheet 2 was
Asiatic Russia), St. Petersburg, 127 x
188 cm. From www.davidrumsey.com
1799 Franz Johann Joseph
von Reilly: "Allgemeine
Postkarte von Russland
zur Uebersicht," Vienna,
19.5 x 13.5 inches, from
Von Reilly and Kuhn's
Atlas Universae rei vere-
meiner Postatlas von der
ganzen Welt." the first
postal atlas of Europe.
1856 James Wyld (car-
tographer): "The Russian
& Ottoman empires,
Prussia & Austria, Shew-
ing the Russian territor-
ial enlargements by
various treaties," Lon-
don, depicting the pro-
posed boundary between
Russia & Turkey at the
end of the Crimean War.
From U.S. Library of
1886 Geographisches Institut (map-
maker): "DAS EUROPÄISCHE
RUSSLAND," Weimar, 59 x 48 cm,
from the 49th edition of "Grosser
Hand-Atlas des Himmels und der
Erde" (Great Hand-Atlas of Heaven
and Earth). From www.davidrumsey.com
1850 Joshua Archer (mapmaker/
engraver): "RUSSIA IN EUROPE &
POLAND," New York, by D. Appleton
& Co.; London by H.G. Collins, 11.25
x 9.25 inches, from "Appleton's
Modern Atlas of the Earth." From
1914 [dated] Иван Федорович Зауэр (Ivan
Fyodorovich Sauer: mapmaker) -
Картографическое заведение А. Ильина
(Cartographic Institution A. Illyin: publisher):
"Схема железных дорог: Европейской
России" (Map, Railway system of the
European part of the Russian Empire), St
Petersburg, 98 x 133 cm, dissected and
linen-backed. Depicts rail tracks, roads,
cities, passenger and freight stations, and
lines under construction. Map includes
numerous insets showing plans of railway
junctions and terminals in cities like
today's Riga, Warsaw, Vilnius and
Kaišiadorys. From www.davidrumsey.com
1603 Abraham Ortelius -
Ieames Shawe (publish-
er): "RVSSIA," London,
from "Abraham Ortelius
his epitome of the theater
of the worlde. Nowe latlye
...renewed and augment-
ed." From The New York
Public Library: https://digital
1852 Alexandre Vuillemin
(cartographer) - J.G. Barbie du
Bocage (mapmaker) - Ch. Smith
(engraver) - Maison Basset
(publisher): "Russie D'Europe,"
Paris, from "Geographie
Universelle Atlas." From
1593 Gerard de
MAXIMI..," from the
atlas "Украина на
1661-62 Pierre Duval -
Nicolas Picart (engraver)
Antoine de Fer (colorist/
Paris, 5.0 x 7.1 inches /
12.7 x 18.0 cm, from
"Cartes de géographie
revues et augmentées."
1946 "EUROPEAN U.S.S.R.
JULY 1, 1946," based on Soviet-
produced maps of 1943 and 1945.
Note the disclaimers about
recognition of boundaries by the
U.S. Government. From U.S. Library
of Congress: www.loc.gov
1904 Edward Stanford (publisher):
"Russia & Poland," London, 62 x 50
cm., showing roads, railways, tele-
graph lines and submarine cables,
from their London Atlas. From
c. 1770 Thomas Kitchin:
"RUSSIA or MOSCOVY in
EUROPE," London, 9 x 7
1/2 inches, from William
Guthrie's "A New Geo-
graphical Historical and
From National Library of
1600 [dated] Johannes
- Matthias Quad
buch." Copies Porro's
1596 map. From National
Library of Finland:
1799 Robert Wilkin-
lisher): "Russia in
from "A General
Atlas..." Does not
depict the new
created after the
de Prétot: "Carte
l'empire de la
with the Polish-
National Library of
1613 - 1878
the Empire ..."
atlas of Modern
1756 Matthaus Seutter:
"Moscoviӕ seu Russiae
Magnӕ : generalis tabula
: quâ Lapponia,
Norvegia, Suecia, Dania,
Polonia..." From www.
1821 [dated] D.I.T Ahrens
(mapmaker) - Christoph Fembo
(publisher): "Carte geographique et
statistique de la Russie Occidentale,"
Nuremberg, with population tables.
Depicts Bialystok oblast, which
existed from 1807-42, when it was
absorbed by Grodno guberniya. From
1816 Jean Baptiste
Poirson: "Carte de
la Russie d'Europe,"
Paris, 28 x 40 cm,
Physique Et Poli-
tiique De Toutes
Les Parties Du
boughettiarte on eBa
1823 [dated] Henry Antoine
Auguste Selves (publisher): "Carte
de la Russie d'Europe, dressee pour
l'usage des Colleges" (...for use in
colleges), Paris, 42 x 33 cm., from
Part 3 of Selves' "Atlas
1829 Wilhelm Ernst August von
Schlieben (cartographer) - Georg
Joachim Goschen (publisher): "
Russland: Das Europæische
Russland. II. Das Kön: Polen. III.
Die Rep: Krakau," Leipzig, 27 x
20 cm. from Vol. 3 of "Atlas von
Europa nebst den Kolonien..."
1606 Petrus Bertius -
Pieter van den Keere:
"Descriptio Russiӕ et
Moschoviӕ / Russia,"
Amsterdam, 3.3 x 4.8
inches, from "Tabu-
1600 to 1650. From www.
c. 1713 John Senex
"Moscovey in Europe.
From the Latest
don. From National
Library of Finland:
1734 [dated] Jacob
Keyser (Keizer) (en-
graver) - Isaak Tirion
(publisher): "Nieuwe Kaart
van Muskovie of Rusland
na de laatste ondekking in
t licht gebracht te
Amster-dam." From National
Library of Finland:
c. 1650 Nicolaes I Vis-
scher (engraver/ publish-
er): "MOSCOVIÆ seu
RUSSIÆ MAGNÆ... PO-
From Koninklijke Bibliotheek
1786 [dated] Louis
Brion de la Tour: "La
January 1942 [dated] H.
Fischer, C. Erdmann, O.
Winkel (mapmakers) -
Oestergaard K.G. (Berlin
Das Europäische Rußland."
From Yale's BeineckeLibrary:
c. 1922 "روسيه" [Russia], Istanbul,
21 x 15.5 cm / 8.2 x 6 inches, in
the Ottoman language, with an
inset map of St. Petersburg,
after Georgia was annexed by
the USSR in 1922, but before
Petrograd was changed to
Leningrad in 1924. From https:
c. 1920 Société de Cartes
Géographiques (mapmaker) -
Kümmerly & Frey (publisher):
"Carte de la Russie: Physique et
politique," Berne, depicting both
the front in Russia, and projected
post-WWI boundaries. From
1550 Battista Agnese
Venice, based on geograph-
ical data given Paolo Giovio
by Russian ambassador
Dmitry Gerasimov. From Univ. of
Californai at Berkeley:
1735 Petrus Schenk II:
"Europæ in Tabula
Leipzig and Amsterdam,
from a republished
Contractus..." From Univ.
of Amsterdam: uvaerfgoed.nl
1836 [dated] Friedrich Wilhelm
Streit (Prussian Major/mapmaker)
- Wilhelm Fischer (cartographer) -
W. Nattorff & Comp. (publisher):
"Das Russische Reich in Europa in
4 Blättern," Berlin, 55 x 44 cm,
four maps on one sheet, from
"Atlas von Europa," published
1766 [dated] Louis Brion
de la Tour (geographer) -
"La Russie Européenne
Conformément à l'atlas
de cet Empire et aux
mémoires les plus récens…"
(Euopean Russia According
to the Atlas of this Empire
and the most recent infor-
mation). From l'Université
Bordeaux Montaigne: http://
Rigobert Bonne -
de l'Empire de
Russie," Paris, 39 x
28 cm. Cartographic
and Geological Institute
of Catalonia: https://
1838 [dated] Jasper Nantiat (original
mapmaker/engraver) - James Wyld
(publisher): "The Russian Dominions
in Europe drawn from the latest Maps
printed by the Academy of Sciences,
St. Petersburg; revised and corrected
with the Post Roads and New Govern-
ments..," London, 54 x 184 cm, in a
two- sheet composite map from "A
New General Atlas..." From
1948 National Security Council,
Central Intelligence Agency, Map
Service Center (cartographer/
publisher, using, as a base, a map
compiled by National Geographic
Society): "AAA [Anti-Aircraft
Artillery] Defenses of the USSR in
Europe," using data as of May 31,
1947 from "Air Intelligence Report
#100," in a declassified map with
Poland's post WWII boundaries, but
with Lithuania's pre-WWII
boundaries. From U.S. National Archives:
c.1775 "Russia in Europe,"
England, 17.2 x 20.9
inches / 43.8 x 53.0 cm,
not showing Russia's
annexation of Grand
Duchy lands in the First,
1772, Partition of the
1875 Friedrich Handtke (super-
vising catographer) - Carl Flem-
ming (publisher): "Europäisches
Russland," Glogau, 82 x 68 cm, as
a composite map of sheets 65-68,
from the 1875 "Sohr-Berghaus
Hand-Atlas uber alle Theile der
Erde." From www.davidrumsey.com
c. 1844 Gras y Compañía
(publisher): "RUSIA EUROPEA,"
Madrid, 35 x 27 cm, claimed to
be from 1800, but depicted
boundaries are from c. 1844.
From Cartographic and Geological
Institute of Catalonia:
1835 [dated 1833] Pablo
Alabern (engraver): "RUSIA
EUROPEA," 41 x 54 cm, from
the Tardieu family's "Colección
de Mapas Geográficos Antiguos
y Modernos." published by
libreria de José Torner. From
General Military Archive of Madrid:
July 1941 [dated] H. Fischer, C.
Erdmann, O. Winkel (map-
makers) - Columbus-Verlag Paul
Oestergaard K.G. (Berlin
Rußland," depicting the Baltic
States as "Estland, "Lettland,"
and "Litauen"in the legend,
whereas the 1942 version lists
them there as SSR's. From
1800 Friedrich Guimpel
(engraver working for
Daniel Sotzmann): "Gener-
alkarte der Westlischen
1842 Henry S. Tanner (publisher):
"Russia in Europe," Philadelphia, 30
x 20 cm., from the last edition of
"Tanner's Universal Atlas." From
1854 Carl Ferdi-
eral Karte vom
mar, in 36
owned by Millard
Fillmore. From US
Library of Congress:
rived from "Geo-
de Malte- Brun..."
32 x 25 cm. From
Akademie der Wissen-
"Karte des europäischen
auf welcher alle
Gemeinen..." (Map of
European Russia -
Designation of the