MapsRussiaInEurope: 1596 - 1929
Maps showing all of European Russia
1799 "Генеральная Карта части России
Разделенная на Губернии и уезды с
изображением почтовых и других главных
дорог / Сочинена и гравирована в 1799
году при собственном ЕИВ Депо Карт."
(Map of the United Nations General Russia
Divided into provinces and districts with the
image of postal and other main roads... St.
Petersburg Map Depot), 112 x 109 cm., pasted
on green silk , edged with red cloth, from the
Imperial Hermitage Foreign Library. See
Reymann's 1802 version of this map. From the
National Library of Russia
1802 Daniel Gottlob
"General Karte von
einem Theil des Russi-
schen Reichs..." 107 x
127 cm, on linen, based
on the 1799 Cyrillic
1812 Tobias Conrad
von West Russland,"
Augsburg, 53.4 x
73.8 cm. From
cesgia on eBay, Old
Times Rare Antiquarian
Books & Maps Sellers
1818 John Pinkerton (cartographer):
"Russia In Europe," 28 x 20 inches,
from the Philadelphia edition of his
"A modern atlas, from the latest and
best authorities..." From
1822 Friedrich Haller von
Hallerstein and C.G. Reichard
(mapmakers) - Friedrich Campe
(publisher): "Charte des Russischen
Reichs, Europaischen Antheils..."
Nürnberg, 31 x 25 cm, from "Neuer
Hand-Atlas über alle Theile der
Erde." From www.davidrumsey.com
1824 Tranquillo Mollo
(publisher): "Karte von
Russland in Europa," Vienna,
From his "Lehrbuch der
Geographie, 2nd Ed., pg 85.
1812 Aaron Arrow-
publisher) - Thomas
& Andrews (publishers):
"Russia in Europe,"
Boston, 25 x 20 cm,
Map of Russia in
Europe, an elegant
atlas..." From www.
1796 Franz Johann Joseph
von Reilly (geographer/
publisher) - Vinzenz G.
"Karte von dem Russischen
Reiche in Europa," Vienna,
63 x 79 cm, from his
"Grosser Deutscher Atlas."
Shows Russian acquisition
of lands from the First,
1772, Partition. From
1799 Robert Wilkinson (map-
maker/publisher): "Russia in
Europe with the Dismember-
ments from Poland in 1773,
1793, and 1795," London, 32 x
23 cm, from "A General Atlas..."
Does not depict the new Russian
guberniyas created after the
1800 Charles Francois
publisher): "Russie d'Europe
divisee par Gouvernemens,
Paris, 30 x 21 cm, at 1:11
400 000with a table of four
divisions of "Russie Pol."
resulting from just the First,
1772, Partition. From
1815 John Thomson: "European
Russia," London, Edinburgh, 61 x
50 cm, for his "New general atlas."
1817 A. Arrowsmith
publisher) - Hall (engraver):
"Russia in Europe" London.
Arrowsmith now has labeled
gubernias, albeit the Wilno
and Grodno gs. without the
correct "Litva" preceding
their names. From
This page is devoted to maps called “Russia in Europe” – showing all of European Russia, not just a guberniya or two -- beginning when Grand Duchy of Lithuania GDL)
lands began being incorporated into the Russian Empire following the First, 1772, Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and continuing, showing administrative
changes within Russia, until 1918. Mapmakers are almost always late to depict boundary changes, unless they are located, and publish, in a concerned country, so what
follows is my own research of what actually happened as a result of the partitions and later. (I have written a series of articles on this subject, with the first two now hosted
at: New York Map Society. Look at many commentaries, online and in books, for what exactly happened in the Partitions, and you get mostly incomplete and incorrect
information. Here’s what actually happened:
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) land losses in the First, 1772, Partition:
- All of [Polish-Lithuanian] Livonian Province (Lith.: Livonijos vaivadija; Pol.: W. Inflantskie) – also called Polish-Lithuanian Livonia, Polish Livonia and Inflanty
Province. Part of the GDL since 1561, this area in 1569, under the terms of the Union of Lublin, became jointly administered with the Kingdom of Poland. The key city
was called “Dyneburg” in 18th century Polish, “Daugpilis” in Lithuanian, “Dünaburg” in German (its “official” name from 1275- 1893, because, even within the Russian
Empire, Baltic Germans held sway in the region), “Двинcк” (Dvinsk) in Russian (from 1893-1920), and “Daugavpils” in Latvian, from 1920 to the present.
- Most of Polotsk Province (Lith.: Polocko vaivadija; Pol: W. Polockie) – everything north of the Daugava (Dvina) river, including its capital, Polotsk, on the northeast
bank of the Daugava, and a vassal of Lithuania since 1240. The area was recaptured by Russians from 1563-78 and 1654-60. Polotsk was “Polacky” in 18th century
Polish, “Пóлоцк” on Russian maps of the 18th to 20 centuries and “Пóлацк” in today’s Belarus.
- Nearly all of Vitebsk Province (Lith.: Vitebsko vaivadija; Pol.: W. Witebskie)
– except for a sliver of land west of the Dnieper river. The province had been controlled by Lithuanians since the 13th century, and became a GDL province in 1503.
Lost was the city of Vitebsk: “Witebsk” in 18th century Polish, “ВÍтебск” on 18th – 20th century Russian maps, and “Віцебск” in today’s Belarus.
- All of Mstislaw (pr. MIS-tih-slahf) Province (Lith.: Mstislavio vaivadija; Pol.: W. Mscislawskie), and conquered by a Lithuanian prince in 1358. The first Lithuanian
duke of the province was Karigaila, brother of Jogaila.
- Less than a quarter of Minsk Province (Lith.: Minsko vaivadija), the part east of the Dnieper river. This province had been a fief of Lithuanian tribes since the 12th
century, and a formal part of the GDL since the 14th century.
Aftermath of the First, 1772, Partition in the annexed areas:
The GDL’s 11 provinces had been stable for hundreds of years – now everyone in two provinces: Polish-Lithuanian Livonia and Mstislaw, most everyone in another two
provinces: Vitebsk and Polotsk, and folks in the easternmost part of a fifth province: Minsk, had to deal with a new, Russian, administration. Two new Russian guberniyas
were created for the annexed lands of the GDL:
- Polish-Lithuanian Livonia, and the annexed parts of Vitebsk and Polotsk provinces became part of a newly-created – and short-lived – Russian governorate, or
guberniya: Pskov, which also included two districts removed from the existing Russian Novgorod guberniya. It soon became apparent that Pskov guberniya was too
big to be effectively administered, so Catherine the Great decreed, in 1776, that it be divided in two: a new, smaller, Pskov guberniya, and a new Polotsk guberniya.
- Mogilev guberniya was also formed in 1772, from parts of the provinces of Vitebsk, Polotsk, Minsk and all of Mstislaw.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) land losses in the Second, 1793, Partition:
- The remaining three-quarters of the Minsk Voivodeship (Minsko vaivadija) -- the part west of the Dnieper River (Lith.: Dniepras upė), including the city of Minsk.
- The remaining slice of Polotsk Voivodeship (Polocko vaivadija) – the part south of the Daugava river -- not taken by Russia in the First Partition.
- The remaining slice of Vitebsk Voivodeship (Vitebsko vaivadija) – the part west of the Dnieper river – not taken by Russia in the First Partition.
- The eastern third of Vilnius Voivodeship (Vilnaus vaivadija), in the GDL since 1413.
- The eastern half of Nowogródek Voivodeship (Naugarduko vaivadija), part of the GDL since 1507.
- The eastern half of Brest Litovsk Voivodeship (Brastos vaivadija), originally created in 1566 from the southern-most part of Trakai Voivodeship (Trakų vaivadija).
Aftermath of the Second, 1793, Partition in the annexed areas:
- Minsk guberniya (Rus.: Минская г.) was created in 1793 and lasted virtually unchanged until 1921, with these two exceptions: in 1842 Grodno guberniya ceded
Novogrudok uyezd to Minsk guberniya. In 1843, two Minsk uyezds, Vileyka and Disna, were absorbed by Vilna guberniya.
Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL) losses in the Third, 1795, Partition:
The Kingdom of Prussia annexed Užnemunė (kairiajame Nemuno krante, iš esmės sutapusi su Suvalkija), calling it New East Prussia: Neuostpreußen. The Empire of
Russia took the area west to the Baltic and the eastern/northern bank of the Nemunas, excluding the Prussian Kingdom’s Memelland. It also annexed Courland.
Specifically, it annexed:
- The remaining, western, two-thirds of Vilnius Voivodeship (Vilnaus vaivadija).
- The remaining, western, half of Nowogródek Voivodeship (Naugarduko vaivadija).
- The remaining, western, half of Brest Litovsk Voivodeship (Brastos vaivadija).
Aftermath of the Third, 1795, Partition in the annexed areas:
- Former GDL lands -- including Augustavas (Pol.: Augustów) and Suvalkija (Pol.: Suwałki )and now in New East Prussia were, in 1806, both conquered by Napoleon
and overrun in the Greater Poland Uprising. The 1807 Treaty of Tilsit divided those former GDL lands, then called Belostok (Białystok) Dept., consisting of Białystok,
Bielsk, Bobrz, Dombrowa, Drohiczyn, Kalwary, Lomza, Mariampol, Surasz and Wygry. All but Bialystok went to the Duchy of Warsaw, which the 1815 Congress of
Poland gave to "Congress Poland," and they remained in nominal Polish hands until WWII. The area of Białystok was, from 1807 to 1842, Belostok Oblast, within the
Russian Empire, after which it was merged into Grodno guberniya.
- Russia divided the remaining territories of the GDL between Vilna and Slonim guberniyas, but by the end of 1796 the two were merged into one, called the Litva
guberniya (Rus.: Литовская г.), its capital in Vilna. In 1801 Litva g. was divided into the Litva-Vilna g. and the Litva-Grodno g., which lasted until 1840, when
Litva/Lithuania was dropped from both names -- when "Lithuania" really did drop from the map of Europe. In 1843, an administrative reform created the Kovno g.
(Rus.: Ковенская г.) out of seven western districts of the Vilna g., including all of Žemaitija. Vilna g. (Rus.: Виленская г.) got three additional districts: Vileyka and
Dzisna from the Minsk g. and Lida from Grodno g. (Rus.: Гродненская г.)
Other guberniya histories of interest to this site -- and especially to this page -- and its geographic focus:
- Estland g. (Rus.: Эстляндская г.) was, in 1796, the new name given to Reval g., created 1719 from territories conquered from Sweden in the Great Northern War.
After the 1917 Russian Revolution, it was expanded to include northern Livonia.
- Liefland g. (Rus.: Лифляндская г.) was created in 1796, succeeding the Riga g.
- Courland g. (Rus.: Курля́ндская г.) was created in 1795 out of the territory of the Duchy of Courland and Semigallia,
- Grodno g. (Rus.: Гродненская г.) was formed in 1796, after the Third and final partition of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and originally known as Slonim g.,
which only existed until December, 1796, when it was merged it with Vilna g. to form Litva g.
1827 Adrien Hubert Brue:
"Carte de la Russie Occidentale
et du Roy.me de Pologne,"
Paris, dated 1827 on the map.
From Brue's "Atlas universel
de geographie physique,
politique, ancienne &
1824 James Wyld (mapmaker) -
John Thomson (publisher):
"Russia in Europe," Edinburgh,
37 x 26 cm, at 1:17 500 000,
from the 2nd edition of
Thomson's "A General Atlas."
From www. davidrumsey.com
1828 Adrien Hubert Brue:
"Carte generale de la Russie
d'Europe, du Royaume de
Pologne, des environs de Caucase
et d'une partie des pays
adjacents, " Paris, 53 x 39 cm,
dated 1828. From
1635 Jodocus Hondius:
"Russia cum Confinijs,"
London, 8 x 6 inches,
from an English edition of
"Atlas Minor." Note the
presence of "Lithvania"
and the absence of Poland.
1855 Auguste-Henri Dufour:
"RUSSIE OCCIDENTALE." Derived
from "Geographie Universelle de
Malte- Brun..." 32 x 25 cm. From
1858 Peterman: "Karte vom
Europäischen Russland zur
übersicht der bis 1858 ausge-
Aufnahmen" (Map of European
Russia illustrating types
of surveys), Gotha, published by
Justus Perthes. From www.
1918 C.S. Hammond & Company
(publisher): " Large Scale Map of
Russia in Europe," New York, 80 x
67 cm, in a linen-backed folding
map. Note the labeling of
"Esthonians," "Letts," "Lithuanianis"
and "White Russians." From the US
Library of Congress: www.loc.gov
1602 Abraham Ortelius:
"RVSSIÆ, MOSCOVIÆ ET
Antwerp, engraved by
Franz Hogenberg, based
on Anthony Jenkinson's
1552 first-hand map of
illustrate Marco Polo's
travels. From Ortelius'
1596 Giovanni Antonio Magini
(publisher) - Girolamo Porro
Dell'Imperio della MOSCOVIA
IMPERIUM," Venice, full page is 7.1
x 9.6 inches. DETAIL images of the
map, and of the area including
"Litvania." From www.swaen.com
1635 Willem Blaeu:
"TABVLA RUSSIÆ,"21 x
17.5 inches. Engraved by
Hessel Gerritsz in 1613,
based on information from
Isaac Massa. Blaeu
acquired the plate after
Gerritsz's death in 1632.
1640 Matthäus Merian: "Tabula RUSSIÆ." in two
versions of Merian's edition of the Hessel Gerritsz map
of Russia. Compare with the 1635 Blaeu versions. First
map from www.raremaps.com; uncolored map from the National
Library of Finland: http://www.doria.fi/
1670 Henricus Hondius:
TABULA Authore Isaaco
Massa," London. From
the Moses Pitt "English
1676 John Speed: "A Map
of Russia," London, 20 x
16 inches, (drawn from
Blaeu's maps) from
"Speed's Prospect of The
Most Famous Parts of the
Pierre Duval: "Moscovie dite autrement Grande et Blanche
Russie," Paris, 20 x 15.5 inches. in both 1676 and 1677: see the
dark heavy line in the upper right corner for Siberia in the 1677
version. Also a DETAIL image of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in
the 1676 version. 1676 map from www.swaen.com; 1677 version from
"RUSSIE ET PO-
1729-30 Herman Moll: "To His Most Serene and August
Majesty Peter Alexovitz absolute lord of Russia &c. this
map of Moscovy, Poland, Little Tartary, and ye Black
Sea &c. is most humbly dedicated," 23.75 x 38 inches,
in two versions. First map from www.raremaps.com;
second from the Norman Leventhal Map Collection at the Boston
Public Library via wikimedia
1893 Walter Graham Blackie: "RUSSIA IN EUROPE,"
Edinburgh, from Blackie & Son's "Descriptive Atlas of the
World and General Geography." Also a DETAIL image. AK
1908 "RUSSIA IN EUROPE," London, 21 x
13.5 inches / 54 x 34 cm, from G.W. Bacon's
"Bacon's Popular Atlas of the World." Three
DETAIL images. From Andrews Old Maps and
1908 Harmsworth Atlas:
"Central & South Russia." From
Federation of East European Family
History Societies: www.feefhs.org
1911 The London Geographical
Institute: "RUSSIA IN EUROPE,"
published by George Philip & Son.
From the Probert online atlas
1916 "(Railway Map,
European Russia)" with a
detail inset of Lvov. From
1921 Hammond Atlas:
"RUSSIA, POLAND, LITHU-
ANIA, LETVIA, ESTHONIA,
1808 Jaspar Nantiat (cartographer) -
William Faden (cartographer/
publisher): "The Russian Dominions
in Europe...from the Russian Atlas of
1806," St. Petersburg, 42.5 x 37
inches / 107.95 x 93.98 cm. After
Faden's 1836 death, this map's plates
were acquired by James Wyld, who
issued this map in several editions.
1852 George Philip & Son: "Russia
in Europe," Liverpool, 65 x 52 cm.
Seriously inaccurate and out of
date, with Vilna and Troki in Minsk
g., and former Lithuanian lands in
Congress Poland since 1815 shown
as "Duchy of Warsaw." From
1809 Депо карт (Map
Depot): "Дорожная карта
(Road Map of the Russian
Empire). From the National
Library of Estonia: www.nlib.
1816 Jean Baptiste Poirson: "Carte
de la Russie d'Europe," Paris, 28 x
40 cm, from "'Géographie
Mathéma- tique, Physique Et
Politique De Toutes Les Parties Du
Monde." From boughettiarte on eBay
1827 (dated 1826) Christian Gott-
fried Daniel Stein (engraver/car-
tographer) - J.C. Hinrichs (publish-
er): "Charte von dem Europӕisch-
Russischen Reiche..," Leipzig, 50 x
39 cm, from "Neuer Atlas Der
Ganzen Welt..." From www.
1832 John Arrowsmith: "Russia &
Poland," London, 62 x 50 cm, from
"The London atlas of universal
geography." Note the correct
inclusion of the Białystok Oblast as
a separate entity within the
Empire of Russia. From www.
1619 Gerard Mercator:
"RVSSIA cum Confinijs,"
Amsterdam, 14 x 19
inches, from his "Atlas
1696 Nicolaes Visscher I:
"MOSCOVIÆ seu RUSSIÆ
MAGNÆ Generalis Tabula
dam, 16.3 x 20.7 inches,
from "Atlas Minor Sive
1757 Didier Robert de
Vaugondy: "Partie Septen-
trionale de la Russie Euro-
péenne où sont distinguées
exactement toutes les
Provinces, d’apres le détail
de l’Atlas Russien..," Paris,
drawn in 1753 from new
surveys and published in
the 1757 edition of his
"Atlas Universel." From
cesgia on eBay
1810 Aaron Arrowsmith
(publisher/hydro- grapher to the Price
of Wales): "Map Exhibiting the Great
Post Roads, Physical and Political
Divisions of Europe from Original
Materials Collected from the Different
Countries: Northeast and South- east
sections," London, each map 81 x 97
cm. From www.davidrumsey.com
1837 Conrad Malte-Brun
(mapmaker) - Aime Andre
(publisher): Russie d'Europe,"
Paris, from Malte-Brun's "Atlas
Complet Du Precis De La
Geographie Universelle." From
1831 Anthony Finley (publisher):
"Russia In Europe," Philadelphia,
from "A New General Atlas
Comprising a Complete Set of
Maps, representing the Grand
Divisions Of The Globe..." Note
colored boundaries of Vitebsk g.
1832 John C. Dower: "Russia in
Europe," Edinburgh, London, from
"A General Descriptive Atlas Of
The Earth, Containing Separate
Maps Of The Various Countries
And States..," London and
Edinburgh. From www.
1837 Fedor Fedorovich Shubert: "Sheets 1 - 16
Kriegsstrassen Karte eines Theiles von Russ-
land und der angraenzenden laender"
(Composite of sheets 1 - 16 of the Military map of
European Russia and neighboring countries...),
Vienna, published by the Generalquartier-
meisterstab (Quartermaster General Staff). From
1851 Maj. Carl Christian Franz
Radefeld: "Europaeisches Russland -
entworfen und gezeichnet vom
Hauptm. Radefeld. 1851," Hildburg-
hausen, 35.4 x 29.8 cm, from
"Meyer's Grosser Zeitungs-Atlas."
1864 James Wyld: "Russia in
Europe including Poland," London,
33 x 27 cm, from "Atlas of the
World," first published 1836. From
1789 Franz Johann
Joseph von Reilly: "Des
Statthalterschaften Riga oder
das Herzogthum Liefland Reval
oder das Herzogthum
Esthland... Nro. 65," Vienna,
from "Schauplatz der fünf
Theile der Welt..." From the
National Library of Finland:
1875 Geographisches Institut,
Weimar: "Das Europäische
Russland," Weimar, 59 x 58 cm,
from volume two of two: "Grosser
Hand-Atlas des Himmels und der
Erde (Great Hand-Atlas of Heaven
and Earth)." From
1875 Augustus Peterman (engraver/
mapmaker): "Ost-Europa..," Gotha,
Sweden, 105 x 84 cm, from Adolph
Stieler's "Hand-Atlas Über Alle
Theile Der Erde..." (Hand atlas over
all the parts of the Earth) first
published 1817. From
1725 - 1795 Ward:
Expansion, 1725 -
from 1912 "Cam-
History Atlas." From
1786 Louis Brion de la Tour (Carto-
grapher Royal to the King of France):
"Russie d'Europe, Divisée par Gou-
vernemens," Paris, 23.6 x 19.3 cm.
Despite the claimed publication
date, the map appears to depict
pre-1772 borders. From cesgia on
eBay: Old Times Rare Antiquarian Books
and Maps Sellers
c1865 P. van Bommel:
EN POLEN," The
Netherlands, 8.3 x
10.2 inches, as an
theprintscollector on eBay
c1869 William & Robert
Chambers (publisher): "Russia in
Europe," London and Edinburgh,
most likely from "Atlas to
Encyclopedia." Notice that From
printsandmaps on eBay
1785 Carington Bowles (publisher): "Bowles's New
One-Sheet Map of the Russian Empire In Europe..." and
"Bowles's New Pocket Map of the Russian Empire In
Europe..." London, depicting pre-First, 1772, Partition
boundaries. One-sheet map from www.raremaps.com; pocket map
from the Spanish Ministry of Defense Virtual Library:
1929 London Geographical Institute (mapmaker): "Russia in Europe: General," and
"Western Russia," London, both from "Cassell's New Atlas of the World." What's
interesting about both these maps is that, in an atlas published in 1929, they both show
boundaries for Russia in 1914, and inaccurate boundaries for Poland in 1929. Both maps
from printsandmaps on eBay
NEW March 24
1801 - 1881 Ward - Prothero-
Leathes -Benians (editors):
"Russia in Europe in the 19th
Century," from the 1912
"Cambridge Modern History
Atlas." From the Perry-Castañeda