Mapmakers of the Historic
Lithuanian Area: A - F
Berlinghieri, Francesco di Nicolo: 1440 - 1501. Italy
Berlinghieri was born in Florence into a family with over 200 years of involvement in Florentine politics, and found work in Florence
in the court of Lorenzo de' Medici. In 1464 he began work on a treatise based upon Ptolemy's "Geographica," updating its maps and
including a commentary in verse form. It was printed in 1482 with copper-engraved maps by the German printer Nicolaus
Laurentii, also known as Niccolò Tedesco, under the title "Septe Giornate della Geographia di Francesco Berlinghieri," meaning "The
Seven Days of Geography." It was one of the first printed works based on Ptolemy and also the first to be printed in vernacular
Italian. Berlinghieri was also among the first to supplement the traditional maps contained in the Geographia with updated maps of
France, Italy, Spain and the Holy Land.
Bonne, Rigobert: 1727 - 1795. Born, Raucort, France; died Paris
Engineer, mathematician and cartographer, he succeeded Jacques-Nicholas Bellin as French
hydrographer (maker of sea charts) in 1773. Working in his official capacity, Bonne compiled
some of the most detailed and accurate maps of the period. Bonne’s work represents an i
mportant step in the evolution of the cartographic ideology away from the decorative work of the
17th and early 18th century towards a more detail-oriented and practical aesthetic. With regard
to the rendering of terrain, Bonne maps bear many stylistic similarities to those of his
predecessor, Bellin. However, Bonne maps generally abandon such common 18th century
decorative features such as hand coloring, elaborate decorative cartouches, and compass roses.
He created maps for Jean Lattre's 1762 "Atlas moderne...," Grenet's 1779-'82, '85 "Atlas portatif,"
and, along with his son, Nicolas Desmarest's 1787-'88 "Atlas encyclopedique..."
Bowen, Emanuel: c1693-'94 - 1767; son Thomas: c1732-'33 - 1790. London
Emanuel, one of the leading 18th-century map- and printsellers in London, was Engraver of Maps to George II of England and
possibly also to Louis XV of France. His apprentices included Thomas Kitchin (who became his son-in-law) and Thomas Jefferys.
He collabrated with other leading mapmakers, including the Bowles family and John Owen. He creations included "A Complete
System of Geography" in 1744-'47, with 70 maps, which were also used in 1747 and 1752 editions of "A Complete Atlas," maps
during 1747-'66 for "The Universal Magazine of Knowledge and Pleasure" for John Hinton. In 1758 he created 52 pocket maps for
"Alas Minimus." His son Thomas began engraving maps for his father in 1749, and later drew maps for the "Gentleman's
Magazine" from 1773-'79. At the same time, Thomas created the maps for Middleton's "A New and Complete System of Geography"
Clüver (Cluverius, Cluvier, Kluver), Philipp (Philippus): 1580 - 1623.
Clüver was an antiquary, given appointment at Leiden as geographer and put in charge of the
university's library, but his life's project was a general study of the geography of Antiquity, based not
only on classical literary sources, but — and this was his contribution — supplemented by wide
travels and local inspections. He became virtually the founder of historical geography. Clüver's
"Germaniae antiquae libri tres," (Leiden, 1616) depends on Tacitus and other Latin authors. His
"Introductio in universam geographiam," (in six parts, published from 1624) became a standard
geographical textbook. He is remembered by collectors and historians of cartography for his edition
of Ptolemy's "Geographia" (based on Mercator's 1578 edition) and for miniature atlases that were
reprinted for most of the 17th century. Many of his maps were etched for him by Petrus Bertius.
Coronelli, Father Vincenzo: 1650 - 1718. Venice
Vincenzo Coronelli, the fifth child of a Venetian tailor, was, at ten, sent to Ravenna and
apprenticed to a xylographer – a maker of woodblock prints. In 1663 he was accepted into the
Conventual Franciscans, becoming a novice in 1665. At age sixteen he published the first of his
140 works. He excelled in the study of both astronomy and Euclid. A little before 1678,
Coronelli began working as a geographer and was commissioned to make a set of terrestrial
and celestial globes for the Duke of Parma. Each globe was five feet in diameter and so
impressed the Duke that he made Coronelli his theologian. In 1699 he was appointed Father
General of the Franciscan order. Due to his renown he worked in various European countries
in the following years, permanently returning to Venice in 1705. In Venice he started his own
cosmographical project and published the volumes of “Atlante Veneto.” He founded the very
first geographical society, the Accademia Cosmografica degli Argonauti. Coronelli died at the
age of 68 in Venice, having created hundreds of maps in his lifetime. Original globes by
Coronelli are today located in several collections. Pairs of his most famous large (c. 110 cm
diameter) globes are e.g. in the Biblioteca Marciana in Venice, in the National Library of
Austria and in the Globe Museum in Vienna, in the library of Stift Melk, as well as in Trier,
Prague, Paris, London, Washington D.C. Having been restored and completed, another 1688
terrestrial globe is displayed at the Southwest Collection/Special Collections Library of Texas
Tech University in Lubbock, Texas. The Ransom Center at The University of Texas in Austin
has a pair of Coronelli globes both the 1688 Terrestrial and the Celestial.
Delamarche (Lamarche), Charles Francois (Father): 1740 - 1817, & Felix (Son), Paris
Charles was a geographer, publisher, and globe-maker who bought the stock of Didier Robert de Vaugondy from Jean
Fortin, as well as the stock of Lattre -- which included work by Bonne, Desnos and Janvier. In 1784 he updated and
re-published Vaugondy's "Nouvel Atlas" and "Nouvel Atlas Portatif, and in 1790 the "Petit Atlas Moderne." Among many other
atlases and maps he published "Atlas elementaire" in 1800 and later editions. His son Felix published the "Atlas de geographie
ancienne et moderne" in 1823 and later editions.
Fer, Nicolas de: 1646 - 1720. Paris
The "Geographer of Paris," he was the son of Antoine (d.1673) and Genevieve (d.1690) de Fer.
Antoine was a Parisian print and mapseller, and a close associate of Nicolas Berey, Melchior
Tavernier and Jacques Lagnet during the middle years of the Century. Antoine never
achieved first rank status, his main speciality being the republication of plates that he purchased
from other Parisian mapsellers and editors. Nicolas took over the family business after the death
of his mother, and built it into a flourishing map publisher. His publications included "Atlas
Royal..." in editions of 1695, '97 and '99, for which he used maps of Sanson, Jaillot and others;
"Petit et Nouveau Atlas," (19 maps) in 1697, 1705 and 1723; and "Introduction a la Geographie,"
in 1717. His sign and emblem was the Sphère Royale, originally that of Tavernier, to which he was
greatly attached and which appears on a large number of his works. His estate was divided
between his three daughters, all of whose husbands were closely involved in the Parisian
engraving and publishing business: Guillaume Danet, bookseller; Remi Richer, engraver, and
Jaques-Francois Besnard or Bénard, engraver to the King of Spain. de Fer's maps and atlases
continued to be published by his heirs for another 20-30 years.
Title page, Jacques-Francois
Bénard's 1723 reissue of
Nicolas de Fer's “Forces de
Blaeu (Blaeuw), Willem (Guilielmus, Guilhelmus) Jansz
(Alcmarianus, Janssonius, Janszoon): 1571 - 1638, born in Uitgeest,
flourished in Amsterdam; son Joan I (Johannes, Jan): c1599-1673, born and
died in Amsterdam
The Blaeu family was, for 40 years -- until a 1672 fire destroyed all their equipment, plates and stock
-- one of the most famous 16th-century publishers of maps, globes and atlases, as well as
cartographers, globe makers and booksellers. Willem (Janssonius) Janszoon originally studied under
the astronomer Tycho Brahe, and founded a globe- and equipment-making company 1n 1596. In
1621 he changed his name to Blaeu to differentiate himself, his firm and his family from that of
Johannes Janssonius. In 1629 he bought 36 plates from Hondius and issued his first land atlas
in 1630 (eight copies are known) as "Atlantis Appendix," which had 60 maps without text. Another of
his many publications was "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," or "Novus Atlas," in 1634 and later editions.
On the death of his former apprentice, Hessel Gerritsz, in 1633, he became chartmaker for the
Dutch East india Company. At his own death in 1638, the business passed to his sons Joan (I) and
Cornelius. Joan I collaborated with his father and brother, and ran the business after his father died --
at which point he succeeded him as chartmaker to the Dutch East India Company. Joan I expanded
his father's atlas "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," publishing six volumes up to 1655. He published "Atlas
Major," known as the Grand Atlas, from 1662-'72 in 11 volumes -- often described as the most
magnificent work of its kind ever produced. It was also said to be the most expensive printed book of
the 17th century. [100 of the maps are reproduced in a 1991 replica atlas published by Rizzoli, a
book I am proud to have received as a present from my wife, Aileen. AK] What was left of the
company after the 1672 fire and the death of Joan in 1673 passed to his son, Joan II. The firm's
surviving stock of plates and maps were gradually dispersed, with some of the surviving plates being
sold to Frederick de Wit, Pierre Mortier, and Schenk and Valck. Many of these maps were
included in composite atlases, even as late as 1730. The demise of the House of Blaeu brought an end
to the Dutch domination of cartography.
Bussemacher (Bussmacherus, Buxemacher), Johannes (Janus): Flourished 1580 - 1613: Köln
Cartographer, engraver, printer. publisher and art dealer. Created maps for Matthias Quad's "Europae..." of 1594 and 1596, which
was expanded in 1600 to "Geographisch Handtbuch."
Braun & Hogenberg (Georg [Joris] Braun [Bruin] and Frans [Franciscus] Hogenberg
[Hoogenberg, Hoghenberghe]): Köln
Braun (1541 - 1622), topographer, geographer and publisher, is best known for "Civitates orbis terrrarum," six volumes, published
1572 - 1617, on which he worked with engraver Frans Hogenberg. It was published in many editions in Latin, French and German at
Cologne. It was the first atlas of town plans and views of the known world, and was often found in conjunction with Ortelius'
Hogenberg (1538 - 90) was a Flemish artist, copper engraver and publisher who started in Mechelen, and later worked in London
(1568 - 69), and Cologne, where he died. He engraved maps for Ortelius' "Theatrum orbis terrarum," and was a joint publisher with
Braun for the first four (of six) volumes of "Civitates orbis terrrarum," 1572 - 1588. This great city atlas eventually contained 546
prospects, bird-eye views and map views of cities from all over the world. Braun added to the maps figures in local dress.
Duval (Du Vall, Du Val d'Abbeville), Pierre (Petrus): 1618 - 1683, Abbeville,
The nephew and pupil of Nicolas Sanson, Duval was "Geographer to the King." He published a large number of
maps, map games and town plans, each appearing in many different states and in many different publications,
the most important of which were: "Cartes de Geographie" (1667, 1684), "Le Monde ou la Geographie
Universelle" (1661, 1672), "Geographie Universelle" (1682, 1691, 1694), and "Le Monde Chrestien" (1670?).
His maps appeared in atlases by Janssonius and Blaeu.
Bertius (Bert, Berts), Petrus (Pierre, Pieter): 1565 - 1629, born Flanders, died Paris
Flemish mathematician, librarian, historian, geographer, cartographer, and cosmographer to Louis XIII. Bertius
was brother-in-law to both Jocodus Hondius and Pieter van den Keere, and collaborated with both. He wrote a
geographical treatise in Latin published as the pocket atlas "Tabularum geographicarum contractarum...,"
Amsterdam, published 1600 in Latin, French and German editions to 1650 with miniature maps engraved by J.
Hondius and van den Keere. He also published an edition of Ptolemy's "Geographia," as "Theatrum geographiae
veteris" in 1618 and thereafter, with 28 maps by Mercator and 14 by Ortelius.
Delisle (De l'Isle) Family: Claude (1644-1720); Guillaume (1675 - 1726);
Marie Angelique (d. 1745); Joseph Nicolas (1688-1768); Paris
Claude, the father, was a pupil of Nicolas Sanson, and a geographer, historian and mapmaker for
Pierre Le Moyne d'Iberville's 1684 historical atlas. His son Guillaume published his first maps in
1700: "Carte du monde" and et la "Carte des Continents, and ultimately created over 100 maps,
having earned mapmaking from his father and from astronomer/mapmaker Jean Dominique
Cassini. He became a Member, French Academie Royale des Sciences in 1702, at 27, and
Premier geographe du roi in 1718. His atlases included: "Atlas de Geographie" 1700-12 and
many later; "Atlas Nouveau" 1730 and later editions (posthumously); "Atlante Novissimo"
1740-50 in Italian. He was succeeded by his widow Marie Angelique (daughter of Pierre Duval),
who continued to sell her husband's maps. After her death in 1745, most of the maps passed to
her son-in-law: Philippe Buache. Delisle's insistence on exactitude and intellectual honesty
entangled him in a legal dispute in 1700 with Jean-Baptiste Nolin, a fellow cartographer. Noticing
Nolin had used details that were considered original from his Map of the World, Delisle dragged
Nolin in court to prove his plagiarism. In the end, Delisle convinced the jury of scientists that Nolin
only knew the old methods of cartography and therefore that he had stolen the information from
his manuscript. Nolin's maps were confiscated and he was forced to pay the court costs. The
accuracy of the work produced by the Delisle family contrasted with the workshop of Sanson.
While Sanson knowingly published outdated facts and mistakes, Delisle strived to present
up-to-date knowledge. Delisle is famous for his corrections based on astronomy, the completeness
of its topography and the care he gave to the spelling of place names. Joseph Nicolas, younger
brother of Guillaume, also studied with Cassini, and later founded the Academy of Sciences in St.
Petersburg. He worked with Kirilov on the first atlas of Russia: "Atlas Russicus." Dutch
cartographer Jan Barend Elwe reissued maps by Delisle in the late 18th century.
1802 Jean Henri Cless:
"Guillaume de l`Isle
Joan Blaeu, by J. van Rossum
|1st state, c1702
-07, Paris: Rue
de St. Sulphice
c1702-07: "La Pologne.
Dressee sur ce qu'en ont
donne Starovolsk, Beau-
plan, Hartnoch...," in the
first state of the plate.
|2nd state, 1707
Quai de l'Horloge
a la Couronne de
|4th state, 1745
& later, Paris:
Quai de l'Horloge
a Aigle d'or; map
|3rd state, after
Quai de l'Horloge
a Aigle d'or
|7th state, dated
1780, with 1772
Paris: Rue des
|5th state, 1730
by Covens et
|6th state, dated
1763, colored to
Rue des Noyers
|8th state, dated
same as 7th
Euler, Leonhard: 1707 - 1783, Basel, Switzerland, died in St. Petersburg,
Russia (while discussing, over lunch, the newly discovered planet Uranus and
its orbit with his family and a fellow academician Anders Johan Lexell
Swiss cartographer/astronomer/physicist, and one of the greatest mathematicians ever, Euler spent
most of his professional life in St. Petersburg (1727 - 41), in Berlin until 1766, after which he went
back to Russia. Among the atlases whose preparation he supervised, was the school atlas “Atlas
geographicus omnes orbis terrarum regiones in XLI tabulis ... / Atlas géographique représentant en
XLI cartes toutes les regions de la terre..,” created under the auspices of the Royal Prussian
Academy of Sciences in Berlin, published in 1753 with 41 maps. This edition includes a title page, a
10-page preface by Leonhard Euler in Latin and French, 41 double-page engraved maps as
mentioned in the title and preface, plus 4 additional maps. The second edition was published in 1760
with 44 maps, followed by the third unaltered edition in 1777, which was printed until 1784. The
maps, mostly based on works of Johann Christoph Rhode, were mostly engraved by Nicolaus
Leonhard Euler by Jakob
Emanuel Handmann (1753)