19th Century and earlier Town Views and Plans: K - M
Kovno (Kaunas): founded: 1030? first reference: 1361, in a Teutonic Knights manuascript
1600 Tadas Makovskis: Kaunas
Panoramic View. From www.datos.kvb.lt
1774 Kaunas city plan.
1860 G. Rober in Raizinys: "Pazaislis
Church." From www.datos.kvb.lt
1863 E. Roevens, in Le Monde:" Kaunas
view." From www.datos.kvb.lt
1875 Napoleon Orda: "Kaunas City Hall
Sq." From www.datos.kvb.lt
1875 Napoleon Orda: "Old City from
Aleksotas Hill." From www.datos.kvb.lt
1893 J. Kamarauskas: "Kaunas Castle in
the 14th-15th Cent." From www.datos.kvb.lt
1840 Barthelemy Lauvergne (painter):
"Vue de Kovno." Lithograph, 9.8 x 16.2
inches. From www.alexandremaps.com
19th Cent. "Kaunas - Old City from the
Northeast." From www.datos.kvb.lt
19th Cent., J. Leczenska: "Pazaislis Church
and Camaldolese Monastery." From
Memel (Klaipėda) and Memel area: founding: 1252 by the Livonian Order, which is also date of first reference
Lida (Lyda): founding date generally considered 1380, but there are passing references to Lida in chronicles beginning 1180
1868 P. N. Batiushkov: "Lida Castle," from
"Pamiatniki stariny v zapadnykh
guberniakh imperii." From
|1848 "Memel." Red:
Old Location 1 = Dom
St. Marien, 2 = rural
church of St.
Nicholas, 3 = Church
of St. John. Green:
New Location 4 =
Church of St. John, 5
= rural Church of St.
St.Jakobi), 6 =
Reformed Church, 7 =
Blue: the Old Dange
with Mill trench.
1700 "Memel in Winter"
1808 "Ansicht von Memel von der West Seite," From
19th Cent. Russian plan of "Kovna,"
showing ring of fortresses
The following three images are NOT of the Kopgalis fortress at Memel (active from 1865
-1871), but of an older fort on the mainland: From the Military Archive section of the Swedish Nation-
al Archives (http://www.riksarkivet.se/), which has a singular collection of images of historic fortress plans
1889 "WIDOK OGOLNY KOWNA" (View of
Kaunas), Krakau, page 15 of "Album
Souvenirs of Adam Mickiewicz," published
by H. Altenberg. From www.antykwariat.biz
1650 "Memel Althof"
1839 "Widok ruin zanku w Kownie" (View
of the runis of Kaunas Castle). From "Friend
of the People, # 23, July 12, 1839. From
1861 Julius Ceglinski "ZAMEK W KOWNIE"
(Kaunas Castle) From "Weekly Ilustrowny."
1873 Roman Szwojnickiego (engraver) - Michael Klyuchevskii
(artist): "KOWNO." From"The Ear," # 427 of September 4,
1873. From www.antykwariat.biz
1888 Michael Elwiro
Andriolli: " Zamek w Kawnie"
( Castle in Kaunas), 141 x
170 mm. From "Weekly
Illustrated" # 294 of Aug. 18,
1888. From www.antykwariat.biz
|1872 Michael Elwiro
Andriolli (artist) -
(engraver): " Gmach
Perkuna, w Kownie"
(Building Called The
Temple of Perkunas, in
Kaunas), 210 x 163
mm. Perkunas was the
Thunder God. From
"Weekly Illustrated" #
221 of March 23, 1872.
ZELAZNEGO NA NIEMNIE
POD KOWNEM" (Interior
View of Iron Bridge over the
Nieman, Kaunas), 119 x 163
mm, from "Weekly
Illustrated" # 255. From
19th Cent. Napoleon Orda: "Kowno"
(Kaunas Castle). From
1803 Leopold von Schroetter:
"Heideckrug," from his "Karte von
1650 "Rus" (Rusne)
1684 "Ragnit," on the Memel River
1838 "Memel mit dem Leuchtturm
and Blick auf das Kurisches Haff"
(Memel with the lighthouse and view of
the Curonian lagoon) 13 x 19.5 cm
lithograph. From www.en.zvab.com
1885 Kaeseberg and Oertel R. Assmus: "Memel,"
Lingenberg, East Prussia,17.5 x 27.5 cm wood
1880 Gustav Schoen-
leber: "Ships on the
wood engraving, 24 x
19 cm. From
1880 Gustav Schoenleber: "Bei Memel,"
9.2 x 19.0 cm. From www.en.zvab.com
1880 "Memel." From www.en.zvab.com
1768 "...der Grentz-Stadt Memel." From
Late 19th Cent.: Napoleon Orda (1807-83):
"Lida." From the National Library of Belarus
Pre-WWI Memel view and postcard mep of
the Memel region. From
19th cent. (or earlier?) "Plan, Kovno,"
with hand-painted Cyrillic notation
1679 Wilhelm Simmler: "The Crossing of the Curonian
Lagoon, 1679." Fresco for the Ruhmeshalle Berlin, ca.
1891. Destroyed by bombing ca. 1944. Photo ca.
1943. From http://www.bildindex.de/bilder/zi0290_0012a.jpg
1679 Bernhard Rode:
"Frederick William the
Great Leading His
Infantry on Sleds across
the Curonian Lagoon."
created ca. 1783. From
1679 P. Brissar: "The
march of the Brandenburg
army in 1679 during the
transition across the
Curonian lagoon." From
"Scanian War 1675 -
1679, march of the
Brandenburg people over
the Curonian Lagoon
under Frederick William
the great Prince Elector."
Wood engraving, 19th
cent., after a tapestry.
1679 "Marsch der
Armee des Kurfürsten
von Brandenburg über
das Eis im Kürisches
|Histories of the Scanian War of 1675-79 -- considered the beginning of the decline of
Sweden as a major European power -- rarely mention an event memorialized in Germany:
"Die große Schlittenfahrt" (The Great Sleigh Ride). The event was a daring maneuver by
Frederick William, the Great Elector of Brandenburg-Prussia, to drive Swedish forces out
of the Duchy of Prussia, a territory of his which had been invaded by the Swedes during
the winter of 1678. The Swedes planned on retreating back to their home country, having
already accomplished their goal of looting much of the province and avenging an earlier
defeat at the hands of Frederick William. Frederick commandeered thousands of sleighs
from local peasants to transport his army across the 625 sq. mile frozen Curonian Lagoon
(Ger.: Kurisches Haff, Lith.: Kuršių marios, Pol.: Zalew Kuroński) so as to cut off the Swedish
retreat. Frederick's forces managed to ride all the way to Memel (Klaipėda), completely
cutting off the Swedes from the coast. Although the Brandenburg forces never actually
managed to force the Swedes to commit to the field in an open battle as Frederick had
wanted, many Swedish troops perished in the harsh winter from hypothermia and
starvation, and the Swedish army was effectively destroyed. This victory cemented
Frederick William's reputation as a great military strategist. The event was captured by
a number of artists -- here are a few of those images:
1850 Antoni Oleszczyński: "Kaunas, today
the capital of Samogitia," 21.8 x 27 cm.
|1776 (Anon.): "Mappa Kościoła
Klasztoru folwarku y Placow do
niego należących Xieży
nazwa współczesna" (Map of the
Church of St. Georege and of the
Bernardine Monastery, Kaunas).
From Jagiellonian Digital Library via
1840 Barthélemy Lauvergne (artist):
"Moulin de la vallée de Mickiewicz à
Kowno," Paris, 26.5 x 42 cm. From