Maps: 1594 - 1600
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "Livonia," Duisberg. 18 x 14 inches, from "Atlas, sive
Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi."
First map from; second from
The Library of Congress, via wikicommons
c1595 Vaclovas Grodeckis  - Abraham Ortelius: "POLONIÆ LITVANIÆ Q DESCRIPTIO," Amsterdam, 38 x 50.5 cm./ 14.5 x 19.125 inches, in five
differently-colored versions, all from "Theatrum Orbis Terrarum," the first modern atlas: the first systematic collection of maps that included all
parts of the world, with maps in a uniform format. Ortelius collected the best available maps and had them re-engraved in a uniform size. It also is
the first printed book of any kind to footnote sources. This is the first issue of Ortelius’s second map of Poland and Lithuania, which replaced the
earlier plate dating from 1570 illustrated on the previous page. The title has been changed and the cartouche redesigned, and there are alterations
to the geography particularly on the right-hand (eastern) side of the map.
The first map is from; the third map is from;
the fourth  map is from; the fifth map is from
c1596 Gerard Mercator: "LITHVANIA." Only his “Chronology” and the “Ptolemaic Geographica” were completed in Mercator's lifetime. His
son, Rumold, completed and published a three-volume Atlas in 1595: “Atlas, sive Cosmographicae Meditationes de Fabrica Mundi” in
Duisburg – the first time the word “Atlas” was applied to a bound collection of maps. After Rumold’s death, the plates for the atlas were
published in 1602 by Gerard Jr. Following his death in 1604, the printing stock was bought at auction by Jodocus Hondius, and re-issued for
the following 30 years.
The first map is from the Rosenwald Collection of the US Library of Congress; the 2nd map is from; 3rd is from skyscrapercity
1596 Bussemacher -
Grodeckis (Godreccio)-
Mathias Quad:
Jean Matal (Metellus) - Giovanni Botero  - Matthias
(publisher of the 1600 version): "POLONIA
LITHANIA LIVONIA," 7.5 x 11.6 inches / 19.50 × 29.50
cm, in two versions published four years apart from the
Latin edition of Botero's "Theatrum Principum Orbis
Universi." The map is derived from Mercator, with
North on right.
First map from Roderick Barron; second from
1596:  Giovanni Antonio Magini - Girolamo Porro (engraver): "POLONIAE REGNVM," Venice, 7 x 5 inches, from the Latin "Geographiae
Universae tum Veteris tum Novae Absolutissimum."
1597: The first edition of Leonardo Cernoti's Italian translation of Magini's
"Geographiae," published by G. B. Galignani & G. Galignani in 1597-98.
First two maps both from; third from
Are the the first two maps  by Giovanni Antonio Magini, published a year apart, identical?

No! Look at  the detail enlargements of each map, of an area of where changes to the plate are most
obvious: changes to the  inscription "Balticum Mare" (Baltic Sea), and to the background stippling.

You'll see many maps at this site that may look identical at first glance, but which are different, either to the
plate or to the coloring.
1598 Vaclovas Grodeckis  -
Abraham Ortelius
DESCRIPTIO," Amsterdam,
38 x 50.5 cm.  From
"Theatrum Orbis
(Yet another
version of this venerable
1598-99 Pietro Marchetti (engraver, best noted for plagiarizing Ortelius' 1577 miniature atlas)) - G.Botero
(publisher): "Poloniæ Descripto," in three versions of miniaturized (4 1/2 x 3 1/2 inch) 1570 Ortelius map,
from his "Relationi Universali."
First map and full page from regiomontanus on eBay; third map from Beach Antique Maps
and Prints: cesgia on eBay
1600 Abraham Ortelius:
1600 Johannes
Bussemacher - Vaclovas
Grodeckis: "Poloniæ..."
Abraham Ortelius,
published by Matthias
Quad. Also two
1598 Philippe Galle: "POLONIA," 4.25 x 3
inches, Antwerp, from a miniature French
edition of maps originally engraved by
Abraham Ortelius, one of many editions in
many languages Galle published until
1601, when the rights passed to Jan.Baptise
(See a nearly identical Ortelius map
from 1592.)
AK-29, oriuginally acquired from
Librarie Le Bail
1596 Giovanni Botero:
LIVONIA,"Cologne, from
his "Theatrum Orbis
Principum universe,"
with north on the right.
From the Univ. of Tartu, Estonia:
1598 Pietro Maria Marchetti (publisher): "LIVONIÆ NOVA DESCRIPTIO IOANNE PORTANTIO
AUCTORE," Brescia and Venice, 4.2 x 2.8 inches /10.7 x 7.2 cm, on a printed page with Italian text
measuring 5.5 x 7.5 inches, in three versions from his "Il Theatro del Mondo," the second pocket
atlas based on
Abraham Ortelius' folio "Theatrum." Note that "Lithvaniae Pars" is delineated east of
"Duneberg." It is often referred to as the plagiarized version of the Epitome., because the plates are
closely copied from those of Philip Galle's 1593 Italian edition, authorized by Ortelius. This map
gives appropriate credit to Jan Portant, and his 1573 map of Livonia. He, in turn, may have based
his map on earlier -- and since lost -- maps by Caspar Henneberger.
First map from; second map from regiomontanus on eBay; third version from Clive A. Burden, Ltd.:
1598 Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova
descriptio / Ioanne Portantio auctore," in a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas
the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and
many others, made small changes to
Portant's 1573 map.
Attributed to Ortelius by
the National Library of Latvia:
1598  Sebastian Munster: "Von dem
konigreich Poland," from his "Cosmograph-
ia," published 1544 - 1628. Compare with
the 1569 version.
From adlers-raritaetentruhe
on eBay
1598 Sebastian Munster: "Das vierdt
buch." miniature "Cosmographia"
(published 1544 - 1628) atlas page, 8 x
12 inches, the map 6 3/4 x 10 1/2
inches. Compare with the 1569 version.
From adlers-rariaetentruhe on eBay
1598 - 1606 Petrus Bertius: ""LIVONIÆ
descrip." Amsterdam, 90 x 125 mm
copperplate from a Dutch pocket atlas.
1598 Girolamo Ruscelli: "TAVOLA NVOVA DI PRVSSIA ET DI LIVONIA," Venice, 10 x 7
inches, from his "Geographia," in two versions, both the third state of his map,
identifiable by the inclusion of a sailing ship. Compare with the 1561, 1562, 1564 and
1574 versions.
Uncolored versionfrom; colored version from Beach Antique Maps
and Prints: cesgia on eBay
1600 Jan Portant: "Livoniæ nova
descriptio / Ioanne Portantio avctore," in a
map often credited to Ortelius, whereas
the reality is that Ortelius, De Jode, and
many others made small changes to
Portant's 1573 map. Compare with the
1598 version and see the difference in the
From the National Library of Latvia:
1598 Giovanni Botero:
"LIVONIA." Sheet 15,5 x 21
cm / 6 x 8 inches.
From smardic
on eBay
1596                                                 1600