Mapmakers of the Historic
Lithuanian Area:
L - M
Studied medicine, mathematics, astronomy and philosophy at the University of Bologna, where he became
Professor of Astronomy. Colleague of Ortelius, Tycho Brahe, Gallileo and Johannes Kepler. His most
important work was the first printed map of Italy, based on maps by Gastaldi, and published posthumously
by his son, Fabio -- its maps were later used by Blaeu and Ortelius, among others. He edited a new edition of
Ptolemy's "Geographica," Venice, 1596, with later editions to 1621. The maps were drawn by Girolamo
Porro, and included a reduced version of Mercator's  atlas. He also edited the atlas to "Geographiae
Universae," Cologne, 1597, and "Moderne tavola di Geografia," Venice, 1597-98.
Magini, Giovanni (Ionnis) Antonio (Antonii): 1555 - 1617, born Padua, Italy
Makowski, Tomasz: c1575 - 1630
Polish draftsman, engraver and printer in the service of Lithuanian Prince Radziwill. His "Magnus Ducatus Lithuaniae..." of 1613,
engraved by Hessel Gerritsz (not Prince Radziwill, as some have claimed),  was used by Blaeu from 1613 to 1635.
Mayer, Tobias (and son Johann Tobias): 1723 - 1762, born Marbach, died
Gottingen, Germany
Mathematician and astronomer, he began working for Homann Heirs (for whom he created maps of
Germany and Poland, including for "Major Atlas Scholasticus") in 1746. In 1749 Homann Heirs published  
his map of the moon -- the first with accurately measured craters. A crater on the moon is named after  
him. He received his C.P.S.C.M.G. (Cum Privilegio Sacræ Cæsaræ Majestatis Gratia) some time after 1749.
He moved to Gottingen in 1751 to become a professor of mathematics. In 1765 he was co-winner of a prize
for discovering a means of measuring longitude while at sea. His son, Johann Tobias Mayer (1752-1830),
who is often confused for his father, created the map "Royaume de Pologne..." in 1813.
Geographer, astronomer, globe-maker, engraver, cartographer, mathematician, publisher.  In
1569 he introduced the projection that finally allowed navigators to plot a constant compass
bearing on a flat map. He planned a cosmography in five volumes under the name "Atlas," but
he completed only a few parts -- including a map of Lithuania -- the balance was completed by
his son Rumold. Plates for the completed Atlas passed on to the Hondius family in 1604. He
also produced a wall map of Europe in 15 sheets, 1554; an Atlas of Europe, c1570-72; and a
definitive version of Ptolemy's "Geographia" in 1578.
Mercator, Gerard (Gerardo, Gerhard) de Cremer (Latinized to
Gerard Mercator ["Merchant"] (Cramer, de Cramere, Kremer)
:
1512 - 1594. Born in Gangelt (Germany at the time), died in Duisburg
(Belgium)
Meyer (Meijer) Family and the Bibliographisches Institut, Germany
The Meyer (Meijer) family, well-known publishers of encyclopedias and atlases, was essentially begun by Joseph (1796-1856)
who founded the Bibliographisches Institut in Gotha in 1826.  It moved to Hilburghausen in 1828, and wound up in Leipzig in
1874. From 1884-1914, the firm was in the hands of Joseph's four grandsons, three of whom were also cartographers: Hans,
Arndt, and Carl Emil. Some of their notable atlases: "Meyer's Schul-Atlas der Neusten Erdbeschreibung" (39 maps), "Meyer's
Pfennig Atlas" (115 maps), "Meyer's Universal-Atlas" (64 maps), "Meyer's Grosser Hand-Atlas..." (170 maps), "Ravenstein's
Hand-Atlas," and "Historischen Atlas," 1911.
Meyer (Meijer, Mejer), Pieter (Peter): Active 1755 - 1768, Amsterdam
Book and map seller, publisher. Most relevant for this site: "Kleine Atlas," Amsterdam, 1768, with maps copied from Emanuel
Bowen.
Müller, Johann Ulrich: 1633 - 1715, Ulm
Military engineer and cartographer in service of the Holy Roman Emperor, he created maps of Hungary, Germany and eastern
Europe for Georg Kuehen and G.C. Bodenehr's "Atlas minor sive orbis terrae," Augsburg.
Münster, Professor Sebastian: 1488 - 1552. Born Nieder-Ingelheim, near Mainz,
died Basle
German cosmographer, theologian, ordained as a priest in 1512, scholar.  Best known for his  Basle editions
of Ptolemy's "Geographia," and the maps he made to accompany them: 1540,  1542, 1545, 1552 -- each  
with 48 double-page woodcut maps. His "Cosmographia Universalis," with 500 woodcuts, and 24
double-page maps, was published in editions from 1544 until 1628.
Merian, Matthäus (Mattheiu; Matheus; Matthew) the Elder: 1593 -
1650; born Basle, Switzerland
Matthaus the Elder was a draftsman, engraver and publisher active, in Basle, Zurich, Strasbourg
and Frankfurt, renowned for his town views and plans. Merian learned the art of copperplate
engraving in Zürich. He next worked and studied in Strasbourg, Nancy, and Paris, before returning
to Basel in 1615. The following year he moved to Frankfurt, Germany where he worked for the
publisher Johann Theodor de Bry, the son of renowned engraver and traveler Theodor de Bry.

In 1617, Merian married his publisher's daughter. They had numerous children, including   a
daughter, Anna Maria Sibylla Merian, in 1647, who became a pioneering naturalist and illustrator.
Two of their sons followed Merian into publishing. With Martin Zeiler (1589 - 1661), a German
geographer, and later (circa 1640) with his own son, Matthäus the Younger" (1621 - 1687),
Matthaus the Elder produced a series of topographia in a 21-volume set collectively known as the
"Topographia Germaniae." It includes numerous town plans and views, as well as maps of most
countries and a World Map. It was such a popular work that it was re-issued in many editions. He
also took over and completed the later parts and editions of the "Grand Voyages and Petits
Voyages," originally started by  de Bry in 1590. The German travel magazine Merian is named  
after him. After his death, his sons Matthäus Jr. and Caspar, also an engraver, took over the
publishing house. They continued publishing the "Topographia Germaniae" and the "Theatrum
Europaeum"   under the name
Merian Erben -- Merian Heirs.
Matthaus Merian the Elder
1612 Matthaus Merian the
Elder: "Frankfurt
Stadtansicht"
Robert Morden: d. 1703, London
An English geographer/publisher/bookseller/globemaker who collaborated  with many others in producing everything from
playing cards to maps. His miniature (200 x 153mm / 7 x 6 inches) "Geography rectified: or, A Description of the World,"  
London, was first published with Thomas Cockeril in
1680. It included a world map and 62 hand-colored country maps,   
including a page headed "Of Poland" with a 5 x 5.5 inch map with an oval cartouche titled
"Poland." A second edition, with      
76 maps, was published in
1688, and additional editions in 1693 and 1700. Those are the four possible publication dates for   
the miniature map of Poland. Other Morden collaborations frequently mentioned by map sources, such as "Geography
Anatomised," did not include the miniature Poland map. A larger map, 22 x 17.3 inches, titled "A New Mapp of the Estates of  
the Crown of Poland. Containing: the Kingdom of Poland the Dutchies & Provinces  of Prussia. Cuiavia. Mazovia. Russia Nigra.
Lithuania. Podolia. Volhinia the Ukraine &c," was published c1690 in London.
Lelewel, Joachim: 1786 - 1861. Born Warsaw, died Paris
Polish historian, mathematician, politician and collector.  Professor of History, University of Wilna, Lithuania, 1815-1818.
Designer    of more than 200 maps and atlases about medieval history and the history of discoveries. Pioneer writer on the
history of cartography, with nine major works, including "Atlas do Dziekow Polskich," Warsaw, 1829; "Atlas zur Geschichte
Polens," Leipzig, 1846; "Geographie du Moyen Age" in 5 volumes, with an atlas containing 145 maps.
Levasseur de Beauplan, Guillaume: 1595 - 1685
French military engineer/cartographerin the service of Ladislaus IV, King of Poland, 1630 - 1647. His 1650"Ukraine" in 8 sheets,
engraved by Hondius, is believed to be the first European military map of a large area: "Nova totius Regni Poloniae...," 1652.
Laurie and Whittle: flourished 1794 - 1858, London
Robert Laurie (1755 - 1836) and James Whittle (1758 - 1818 in Brighton, England) were map and atlas publishers, and the
successors to the Robert Sayer firm. Robert Laurie was an apprentice engraver for Sayer, and became his assistant around  
1790. James Whittle was a print seller who also became an assistant to Sayer in 1790. When Sayer died in
1794, the two   
bought Sayers plates and stock from Sayer's son, and began republishing maps and atlases under their own imprint, often
bringing in other important cartographers of the day, including Kitchin, Faden, Jefferys and others to update and modify Sayer
plates. One of their first efforts was
retitling Sayer's 1972 "The Kingdom of Poland and Great Dutchy of Lithuania
With All Their Divisions," to "A New Map of the Kingdom of Poland With Its Dismembered Provinces..."
 
Robert Laurie retired in 1812, leaving management of the firm to his son, Richard Holmes Laurie (1777 - 1858). Under R. H.
Laurie and James Whittle, the firm renamed itself "J. Whittle and R.H. Laurie." After Whittle died the firm continued under the
imprint of "R. H. Laurie." After R. H. Laurie's death the publishing house and its printing stock came under control of Alexander
George Findlay, who had long been associated with Laurie and Whittle. Since, Laurie and Whittle passed through numerous
permeations, with part of the firm still extant as an English publisher of maritime or nautical charts: "Imray, Laurie, Norie and
Wilson Ltd." The firm is the oldest nautical chart publisher in Europe.