Hello/Labas! I'm Andrew Kapochunas (Andrius Kapočiūnas, born in the Lithuanian-Estonian
Displaced Persons camp in Kempten - Allgäu, Germany)
and this site reflects my interest in maps of the
historic Lithuanian area:"The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania," 1569 - 1791,
followed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the "Polish Republic," 1791-1795. At one point it
covered 400,000 square miles and was the largest country in Europe. According to Steven Seegel, in his
2012 "Mapping Europe's Borderlands," it
"...comprised parts of 14 Central and East European countries
-- Austria, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast,
Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine..."
 My focus
here is the area represented today by the three Baltic republics, eastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast,
and Belarus -- if you or your ancestors are from these areas, you will find maps here of interest.

What hasn't existed, before this site, is a single source for:
  • Information on mapmakers of this historic Lithuanian area
  • Historic-Lithuanian-area map images, sorted by date depicted, published from 1507 to 1954
  • Ethnographic and historical maps of the historic Lithuanian area from pre-history to World War II
  • Political maps of Europe showing Lithuania and/or Poland
  • The history that explains the shifting boundaries of Lithuania
  • Sites selling historic and contemporary maps of the historic Lithuanian area
  • Biographies of mapmakers of this area, hotlinked to their maps
  • Global auctions and fairs for historic-Lithuanian-area maps

Totals to date:
  • 3,077 unique maps, total, showing the historic-Lithuanian area; many are in high definition
  •     828 additional higher-magnification detail images of those maps
  •     512 topographic maps from the 19th century onwards showing the area in fine detail
  •     207 historical maps of the Lithuanian area -- maps created and published  long after the time depicted
  •      174 political maps of Europe from 900 to 1942 showing Lithuania and/or Poland
  •       162 19th century and earlier town views, prints -- and reverse sides of map playing/collectible cards
  •      133 ethnographic maps, categorizing peoples by tribe, language and/or religion
  •       70 maps of European Russia, 1596 - 1929, mostly showing Lithuania in and outside the Russian Empire
  •         58 mapmaker biographies, many with illustrations and analyses of their maps  
  •        42 hotlinks to additional map resources, including upcoming map fairs  
  •       37 sea charts of the Baltic, 1584 - 1944, focusing on the sea around Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
  •       21 playing/collectible cards with images of maps
  •          0 advertisements or items for sale: this site is 100% educational

I try to update the site every Friday, listing the newly-added maps, town views and prints -- all with
source attributions at the image.

April 14 adds: 10 maps; 2 detail images; 4 town views

Next update: May 5

Where do visitors to this site come from? As of this week, visitors' countries of origin:
1. USA: 31.7%; 2. Lithuania 18.2%; Latvia: 17.0%; 4. Russia: 7.1%; 5. Other: 26.0%

  • 1796 (dated) von Reilly (cartographer/publisher): "XXV. Karte von dem Koenigreiche Preussen"     
    (5.1 MB), Vienna, from "Grosser Deutscher Atlas," the first Austrian-made complete world atlas. Note areas
    labeled "Litauen," which include the districts Memel, Tilsit, Ragnit, Insterburg, Labiau, Angerburg, Loetzen,
    Oletzko, Neuhof, Sehesten, Rein, Lyk, and Iohannisburg. The map does not reflect Prussian acquisitions of
    Grand Duchy land in the Third, 1795, Partition

  • 1799 (dated) Cary (engraver/globe-maker/cartographer/publisher): "A New Map of the Kingdom of
    Prussia..." (3.3 MB), London, from "Cary's New Universal Atlas..." Note the label, and the area it appears to
    cover, of "Little Lithuania," Cary's translation of "Kleinlitauen," or Mažoji Lietuva. Originally populated by
    Prussian Lithuanians, or Lietuvininkai, the area was overrun by Teutonic Knights in the 13th century, but    
    even as late as the 1890 Prussian census the area contained 121,345 Lithuanian speakers. The map's  
    boundaries  for "Little Lithuania" include the districts of Memel, Tilsit, Ragnit, and Insterburg. Labiau, on the
    other hand, is part of Sammland. Despite  being published three years after the map above, it still does not
    depict Prussian acquisitions of Grand Duchy land in the Third, 1795, Partition

  • c1830 Josef Kovács (Hungarian mapmaker): "Lengyel Föld" (Polish Lands) (167 KB), along with a     
    detail image (182 KB), depicting pre-Partition Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth borders

  • 1918 Max (cartographer): "Mapa Polski i krajów ościennych - Wydanie Trzecie" (Map of Poland
    and Neighboring Countries - 3rd Edition) (6.6 MB), Warsaw. A wall map with tentative boundaries,
    and shading in green crayon, of the "Second Polish Republic"

  • (MapsEthnographic):
  • 1873 (dated) Риттих (Rittikh) (general/cartographer/ethnographer/journalist):
    "Этнографическая карта Прибалтийского края" (Ethnographic map of the Baltic
    region) (8.7 MB), St. Petersburg, depicting на́родно̄ст (nationality) from Narva to Memel. Under
    Литовские племя (Lithuanian races) note separate coloring for Lithuanians, Żmudź (in Samogitian:
    Žemaitėjė) and Latvians

  • 1878 Perron (engraver) - Reclus (anarchist/nudist/geographer): "Lands of the Lithuanians...
    according to Dragomanov [Cossack-Ukrainian ethnographer]" (438 KB), London, from Reclus'   
    "The Universal Geography," published in English 1876-94 by J.S. Virtue & Co. His map depicts lands of  
    the "Letto-Lithuanians" in the 10th and 19th centuries. Reclus was banished from France for life for  
    having supported the Paris Commune, a radical socialist movement that briefly held sway in Paris in    
    1871. He also initiated the "Anti-Marriage" Movement in 1881, allowing his daughters to "marry"     
    without the benefit of a civil  or religious ceremony

  • (MapsLithuaniaInEurope):
  • c1670 Blome (mapmaker): "A New Mapp of Europe Designed by Mounsieur Sanson...1669"
    (1.5 MB), London, from his "Geographical Description of the Four Parts of the World." The earliest folio-
    sized (22 x 16 inch) map of Europe to be engraved and  printed in England. Note the boundaries for "Lit   
    ua ni a" and the odd way that label is constructed -- finding the different parts of the name is a challenge

  • 1769 G. Delisle (geographer/mapmaker/publisher): "Carte d'Europe...1724...Philippe Buache
    1760...1769" (8.0 MB), Paris, in a map based on work by Delisle, updated twice by Buache. The 1760
    version, which I will not bother to upload to this site, has no differences in "Pologne" from  the 1769
    version. Just one more example of a map of Europe where "Pologne" is the overall name given to the
    Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and "Lithuanie" is a collection of provinces with no clear boundaries

  • (MapsRussiaInEurope):
  • c1807 E. Hérisson (geographer/hydrographer): "La Russie 2 Feuille" (339 KB), depicting the   
    Empire of Russia from "Curlande" and "Novgorod" south. Note the label for "Lithuanie," which covers an
    area approximating the former borders of the Grand Duchy

  • (TownViewsA-J): Biržai, a new addition  to this site, is in north-central Lithuania near the Latvian border,  
    and famous today for both its Castle, built 1575 to 1589, and its breweries. The town was first mentioned in the
    literature in 1455.
  • c1601-25 Makovskis (engraver/cartographer): "Birze" (453 KB). Duke Krzysztof Mikołaj Radziwiłł
    “The Thunderbolt” (1547-1603) built a fortress in Birže, illustrated in this engraving, from 1575 to 1589,
    creating embankments, a palace, an Evangelical Reformist church, an arsenal, grain storage buildings and
    warehouses, barracks and other facilities. The castle was destroyed by Swedes in 1625 and again in 1704

  • c1625 (Anon.): A plan of the Biržai fortress

  • 1645 Narūnavičius-Naronskis (Naronski) (cartographer/mathematician/architect/military engineer/
    colonel): "Mappa Księstwa Biržanskiego..." (185 KB), is a map of, and guide to, the Duchy of Biržai,
    which existed from 1547 to 1811, owned by the Radvila/Radziwill family. The original of the map is in the
    Biržų pilis, but an amazing reproduction, taking up a whole wall, is in the restaurant of the Biržai brewery
    Rinkuškiai, where I celebrated, with my Lithuanian cousins, my birthday in 2015

  • 1704 (Anon.): "Siege of Biržai Castle by the Swedes" (105 KB), with a detail  image (152 KB) of the

  • c1797 Smuglewicz (Smuglevičius) (painter): "Ruins of Biržai Castle" (101 KB), Vilnius
200 metų ąžuolas. 200-
year-old oak in
Mažeikiai, Lithuania,
by Aras Mileska
When viewing this site repeatedly,  ALWAYS RELOAD/REFRESH (or try "Ctrl" + "F5") BEFORE VIEWING
1773 Robert Sayer (pubisher): "The Troelfth Cake (also the The Twelfth Cake, The Royal Cake, The Cake of Kings,
from the French: Le gâteau des rois, Polish: Kołacz królewski, Placek królewski)
is a 1773 French allegory and
satire for the First Partition of Poland. It is likely that the original title in English was intended to say "The Twelfth
Cake," alluding to the division of a King Cake
(also called a Twelfth Cake), but corrupted in later reprints.There are
at least four variants of this drawing, most common in the form of an engraving, but also as at least one color
painting; the original was likely drawn by Jean-Michel Moreau le Jeune and engraved by Nicolas Noël Le Mire
(although another source calls them merely the authors of the most famous variant). The Troelfth Cake shows the
rulers of the three countries that participated in the partition tearing apart a map of the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth. The outer figures demanding their share are Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia.
Catherine is glaring at her former lover, the Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski, and (in some variants of the
engraving) Frederick is pointing to Danzig
(Gdańsk) with a sword (although Prussia acquired the territories around
it, Gdańsk still remained with the Commonwealth). The inner figure on the right is the Habsburg Emperor Joseph II.
On his left is the beleaguered Stanisław August Poniatowski, who (in some variants of the engraving) is experiencing
difficulty keeping his crown on his head, and in another, has already lost it. Above the scene is Pheme (with
manifestos from the partitioning powers in the German variant). The drawing gained notoriety in contemporary
Europe; its distribution was banned in several European countries, including France. This ban, and associated
penalties, meant that many variants of this work have been anonymous.
(From Wikipedia)
The mission and intent of this site: 100% educational, 100% non-commercial
Contents ©, LLC, 2017
Images may be reproduced or transmitted for non-commercial use without permission
The First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: 1772
French original engraving.
From Jonathan Potter:
German version by Johannes
Esaias Nilson.
From WikiCommons
Jean-Michel Moreau.
From WikiGallery
1697 Philipp Clüver: "Veteris et Novae Regni Poloniae Magniq Ducatus Lithuaniae...,"Leyden, from
"Introductionis in Universam Geographicum," issued 1650 -  mid-1700's.
From Barry Lawrence Ruderman
Antique Maps:
Reproduction of "Mappa Księstwa
Biržanskiego..." at the Rinkuškiai
brewery in Biržai