Hello/Labas! I'm Andrew Kapochunas (Andrius Kapočiūnas, born in the Lithuanian-Estonian
Displaced Persons camp in Kempten - Allgäu, Germany)
and this site reflects my interest in maps of the
historic Lithuanian area:"The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania," 1569 - 1791,
followed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the "Polish Republic," 1791-1795. At one point it
covered 400,000 square miles and was the largest country in Europe. According to Steven Seegel, in his
2012 "Mapping Europe's Borderlands," it
"...comprised parts of 14 Central and East European countries
-- Austria, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast,
Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine..."
 My focus
here is the area represented today by the three Baltic republics, eastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast,
and Belarus -- if you or your ancestors are from these areas, you will find maps here of interest.

What hasn't existed, before this site, is a single source for:
  • Information on mapmakers of this historic Lithuanian area
  • Historic-Lithuanian-area map images, sorted by date depicted, published from 1507 to 1954
  • Ethnographic maps of the historic Lithuanian area from pre-history to World War II
  • Political maps of Europe showing Lithuania and/or Poland
  • The history that explains the shifting boundaries of Lithuania
  • Sites selling historic and contemporary maps of the historic Lithuanian area
  • Biographies of mapmakers of this area, hotlinked to their maps
  • Global auctions and fairs for historic-Lithuanian-area maps

Totals to date:
  • 3,349 unique maps showing the historic-Lithuanian area; many in high definition; all in downloadable jpegs
  •     853 additional higher-magnification detail images of those maps
  •     564 topographic maps from the 19th century onwards showing the area in fine detail
  •     213 historical maps of the Lithuanian area -- maps created and published long after the time depicted
  •     186 political maps of Europe from 900 to 1942 showing Lithuania and/or Poland
  •      167 19th century and earlier town views and prints
  •      146 ethnographic maps, categorizing peoples by tribe, language and/or religion
  •        99 maps of European Russia, 1562 - 1944, mostly showing Lithuania in and outside the Russian Empire
  •         60 mapmaker biographies, many with illustrations and analyses of their maps  
  •        44 hotlinks to additional map resources, including upcoming map fairs  
  •       43 sea charts of the Baltic, 1584 - 1944, focusing on the sea around Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
  •       21 playing/collectible cards with images of maps
  •        0 advertisements or items for sale: this site is 100% educational

February 16 adds: 7 maps; 2 detail images of those maps; 1 town view; 1 new mapmaker biography,
solving widespread dating inconsistencies of a map of Poland and Prussia, a plate originally created     
and engraved by
Johann Stridbeck II in 1700. On his death in 1716 the plate was acquired and
renamed by
Gabriel Bodenehr. On his death, the plate was acquired, renamed  and published in   
1757 by
Georg Kilian. I've had to rearrange and re-date five erroneously dated map images

Next update: March 2

Where do visitors to this site come from? As of this week, visitors' countries of origin:
1. USA: 24.3%; 2. Lithuania: 21.7%; 3. Latvia: 18.2%; 4. Russia: 7.7%; 5. Other: 28.1%

  • 1762 [dated] Robert de Vaugondy (mapmaker/publisher): "ROYAUME de POLOGNE" (2.3 MB), in a   
    third version of the first state. Engraved by E. Dussy and cartouche by Arrivet

  • 1782 Fielding (publisher) - Cary (engraver): "POLAND, shewing the claims of AUSTRIA, RUSSIA &
    PRUSSIA" (382 KB), London, in a third version, none of which were colored to actually depict the territorial
    claims mentioned in the title, which refers to the First, 1772, Partition

  • 1939 Abteilung für Kriegskarten und Vermeßungswesen (Dept. of War Maps and Surveys) (publisher):
    "POLEN" (8.8 MB), at 1: 1 000 000, depicting most of Lithuania and northern Czechoslovakia, with   
    boundary lines between Poland and Czechoslovakia for Dec. 10, 1938, and April 4, 1939. Why show such
    boundaries? Given that neither Poles nor Czechoslovaks were happy with the post-WWI boundary between
    them, Germany's demands, and ultimate annexation of the Sudetenland in 1938, the Polish leader, Colonel  
    Józef Beck, believed that Warsaw should act rapidly to forestall the German occupation of an important    
    railway junction: Bohumin (Polish: Bogumin). At noon on September 30, Poland gave an ultimatum to the
    Czechoslovak government, demanded the immediate evacuation from Bohumin of Czechoslovak troops and
    police, giving Prague until noon the following day. Fifteen minutes before the deadline, the Czechoslovak   
    foreign ministry called the Polish ambassador in Prague and told him that Poland could have what it wanted.
    The Polish Army, commanded by General Władysław Bortnowski, annexed an area of 801.5 km² with a
    population of 227,399. Germany was happy to sacrifice a small provincial rail center to Poland in exchange for
    the propaganda benefits: it spread the blame of the partition of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, and made
    Poland a participant in the process. Poland was accused of being an accomplice of Nazi Germany. Amid the
    general euphoria in Poland – the annexation was very popular – no one paid attention to the bitter comment of
    the Czechoslovak general who handed the region over to the incoming Poles. He predicted that it would not be
    long before the Poles would themselves be handing the annexed area over to the Germans. Soviet Prime
    Minister Molotov denounced the Poles as "Hitler's jackals," and Winston Churchill, in his postwar memoirs,
    compared Germany and Poland to vultures landing on the dying carcass of Czechoslovakia, and lamented that
    "over a question so minor as [the territorial acquisition, the Poles] sundered themselves from all those friends  
    in France, Britain and the United States who had lifted them once again to a national, coherent life, and whom  
    they were soon to need so sorely...It is a mystery and tragedy of European history that a people capable of
    every heroic individuals, should repeatedly show such inveterate faults in almost every aspect of
    their governmental life." Commentary from wikipedia

  • (MapsLithuaniaInEurope):
  • 1595 Ortelius (mapmaker): "EVROPAE" (1.5 MB), Antwerp, the 1st edition, inaccurately colored,
    showing geographic ignorance: "Litvania" is colored as a single unit with "Livonia, "Moskovia" and part     
    of "Polonia," which has its eastern part colored as part of "Germania." Ortelius' inputs: Mercator and his
    map of Europe; Magnus and his map of Scandinavia, including the eastern Baltic coast; Jenkinson for his
    map of European Russia -- uploaded to this site this week. See Ortelius' 2nd edition on the same page,   
    and note the telltale cursive writing above Africa

  • (MapsRussiaInEurope):
  • 1562 [dated] Jenkinson (British navigator/merchant/astronomer/cartographer) - Reynolds
    (engraver): "Nova  absolvtaqve Rvssiӕ, Moscoviӕ et Tartariӕ..." (2.4 MB), London, along with     
    detail images of the cartouche (310 KB) and the Australian coat-of-arms (286 KB) -- the map was
    sponsored by an Australian). "Livonia" and Litvania" are labeled at the extreme left-hand part of the  
    map, with Smolensk's position unclear in this image. In four sheets, the huge map (82 x 102 cm / 32 x 40
    inches) was based partly on his personal  travels through the Ottoman Empire, Russia (facilitated by czar
    Ivan the Terrible), and Persia, as well as on information from previous travelers in those regions: Anton
    Wied, Sigismund Herberstein, William Borough, and others. This map was long thought lost until a copy
    was bought in 1987 by a student in a Polish bookstore as a present for his teacher! It was copied most  
    faithfully by Ortelius, but also used by  de Jode and others in maps of Europe and European Russia
    A paper on the map and the source for the image:

  • c1570-92 Ortelius (mapmaker): "Rvssiae, Moscoviae et Tartariae..." (1 MB), giving credit to
    Jenkinson's 1562 map in the cartouche -- misinterpreted by sources, including wikipedia, that Ortelius'
    map is from 1562. In this version of Jenkinson's map, Smolensk is incorrectly part of the Grand Duchy of

  • 1593 de Jode (mapmaker): "MOSCOVIÆ MAXIMI AM PLISSIMI QVE DVCATVS..." (3.5 MB),
    credited to Jenkinson in the cartouche, from the Russian atlas  "Украина на старинных картах."
    "LITVANIÆ PARS" is on the extreme left border, and "Smolensko" appears correctly in "Moscoviӕ"

  • (TownViewsN-U):
  • c1640 Merian (artist): "Revalia - Reveln" (255 KB), Frankfurt, in an early view of the city that would
    become Tallinn
200 metų ąžuolas. 200-
year-old oak in
Mažeikiai, Lithuania,
by Aras Mileska
When viewing this site repeatedly,  ALWAYS RELOAD/REFRESH (or try "Ctrl" + "F5") BEFORE VIEWING
1773 Robert Sayer (pubisher): "The Troelfth Cake (also the The Twelfth Cake, The Royal Cake, The Cake of Kings,
from the French: Le gâteau des rois, Polish: Kołacz królewski, Placek królewski)
is a 1773 French allegory and
satire for the First Partition of Poland. It is likely that the original title in English was intended to say "The Twelfth
Cake," alluding to the division of a King Cake
(also called a Twelfth Cake), but corrupted in later reprints.There are
at least four variants of this drawing, most common in the form of an engraving, but also as at least one color
painting; the original was likely drawn by Jean-Michel Moreau le Jeune and engraved by Nicolas Noël Le Mire
(although another source calls them merely the authors of the most famous variant). The Troelfth Cake shows the
rulers of the three countries that participated in the partition tearing apart a map of the Polish-Lithuanian
Commonwealth. The outer figures demanding their share are Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of Prussia.
Catherine is glaring at her former lover, the Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski, and (in some variants of the
engraving) Frederick is pointing to Danzig
(Gdańsk) with a sword (although Prussia acquired the territories around
it, Gdańsk still remained with the Commonwealth). The inner figure on the right is the Habsburg Emperor Joseph II.
On his left is the beleaguered Stanisław August Poniatowski, who (in some variants of the engraving) is experiencing
difficulty keeping his crown on his head, and in another, has already lost it. Above the scene is Pheme (with
manifestos from the partitioning powers in the German variant). The drawing gained notoriety in contemporary
Europe; its distribution was banned in several European countries, including France. This ban, and associated
penalties, meant that many variants of this work have been anonymous.
(From Wikipedia)
The mission and intent of this site: 100% educational, 100% non-commercial
Contents ©, LLC, 2018
Images may be reproduced or transmitted for non-commercial use without permission
as long as credit is given to both the original source and this site
The First Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: 1772
French original
Jonathan Potter:
German version
by Johannes
Esaias Nilson.
1697 Philipp Clüver: "Veteris et Novae Regni Poloniae Magniq Ducatus Lithuaniae..." Leyden. From  
"Introductionis in Universam Geographicum," issued 1650 -  mid-1700's.
From Barry Lawrence Ruderman Antique Maps:
c1430 coat-of-arms of
Смоленск/ Smolenskas/
Smolensk. Founded in 1054,
part of the Grand Duchy of
1404 - 1514
(when it may have been the
largest city in Lithuania);
and again 1611 - 1654