Hello/Labas! I'm Andrew Kapochunas (Kapočiūnas) and this site reflects my interest in maps of the
historic Lithuanian area:"The Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania," 1569 - 1791,
followed by the Grand Duchy of Lithuania within the "Polish Republic," 1791-1795. At one point it
covered 400,000 square miles and was the largest country in Europe. According to Steven Seegel, in his
2012 "Mapping Europe's Borderlands," it
"...comprised parts of 14 Central and East European countries
-- Austria, Belarus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Russia's Kaliningrad Oblast,
Latvia, Lithuania, Moldova, Poland, Romania, Russia, the Slovak Republic, and Ukraine..."
 My focus
here is the area represented today by the three Baltic republics, eastern Poland, the Kaliningrad Oblast,
and Belarus -- if you or your ancestors are from these areas, you will find maps here of interest.

What hasn't existed, before this site, is a single source for:
  • Information on mapmakers of this historic Lithuanian area
  • Historic-Lithuanian-area map images, sorted by date depicted, published from 1507 to 1954
  • Ethnographic and historical maps of the historic Lithuanian area from pre-history to World War II
  • Political maps of Europe showing historic Lithuania and/or Poland
  • The history that explains the shifting boundaries of Lithuania
  • Sites selling historic and contemporary maps of the historic Lithuanian area
  • Biographies of mapmakers of this area, hotlinked to their maps
  • Global auctions and fairs for historic-Lithuanian-area maps

Totals to date:
  • 2,255 unique maps, total, showing the historic-Lithuanian area
  •     566 additional higher-magnification detail images of those maps
  •     450+ topographic maps showing the area in fine detail
  •     165 historical maps of the Lithuanian area -- maps created and published  long after the time depicted
  •     144 political maps of Europe showing Lithuania and/or Poland
  •     126 19th century and earlier town views, prints -- and reverse sides of map playing/collectible cards
  •         77 ethnographic maps, categorizing peoples by tribe, language and/or religion
  •       54 mapmaker biographies, many with illustrations
  •       34 hotlinks to additional map resources, including upcoming map fairs
  •        18 sea charts of the Baltic, 1584 - 1922, focusing on the sea around Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia
  •          0 advertisements or items for sale: this site is 100% educational

I try to update the site every Friday, listing the newly-added maps, town views and prints.

November 21 adds: 10 maps; 3 improved map images; 7 detail images

NEXT UPDATE: November 28

Where do visitors to this site come from? As of this week, visitors' countries of origin:
1. USA: 22.2%; 2. Latvia: 16.3%; 3. Lithuania: 12.4%; 4. Germany: 8.7%; Other: 40.4%
80% of all visitors to this site each week are new, and they spend, on average, over 5 minutes here

  • 1686 Mallet (cartographer/grammarian/engineer/mathematician): "Pologne" (178 KB), Frankfurt, from
    the first German edition of his "Description de 'l Univers..."

  • 1704 Jaquez (mapmaker/compiler): "Map of Saaremaa and western Estonia" (2.4 MB), Kuressaare
    (Arensburg) on the island of Saaremaa (Ösel), and based on an earlier map from 1650

  • 1773 Hudyakov (publisher) - Schmid (mapmaker): "Генералъная Географическая Карта
    Псковской и Могилевской Губернии ..." (General Geographic Map, Pskov and Mogilev
    guberniyas ...) (476 KB), St. Petersburg, in an improved and colored image, as well of five new detail images
    (replacing two old ones) of the two guberniyas created to accommodate the annexed Lithuanian territories of
    the First Partition. All notations in Cyrillic

  • 1792 (Anon.) "Mogilev Province" (795 KB), created after the First Partition out of annexed Grand Duchy of
    Lithuania provinces: parts of the provinces of Vitebsk, Polotsk, and Minsk and all of Mścisławall. All notations in

  • 1794 Dunn (mathematician): "A New Map of the KINGDOM OF POLAND with all its Divisions and
    The Dismember'd Provinces" (824 KB), London. Also a detail image (751 KB) of the cartouche and of areas
    lost in the First Partition, which Dunn correctly labels "The Russian Province, dismembered from Lithuania"

  • 1904 Sikorski: "Mapa guberni Królestwa Polskiego" (Map of the province of the Kingdom of
    Poland) (13.5 MB), Warszawa, at 1:1 000 000

  • 1928 Private postcard map: "Lietuva" (286 KB), showing aspirational borders

  • 1934 (Anon.): "POLAND" (304 KB), New York,  from "Atlas of the World", C. S. Hammond & Co., with unusual
    boundaries -- including "Vilna" and "Grodno" in Lithuania. Also a detail image (309 KB) of Lithuania

  • (MapsEthnographic):
  • 1898 (Anon.): "RUSSIE - Races et Religions" of the European part of the Russian Empire, Paris, at  
    1:40 000 000. From "Histoire Et Géographie - Atlas Général Vidal-Lablache." Appears to be based on
    the 1897 Russian census, which determined ethnicity by asking the primary language spoken in the home
    -- a sure-fire scientific method. Not surprisingly, "Polonaise" are limited to the boundaries of the 19th
    century Kingdom of Poland, and "Lithuaniens" and "Lettons" are limited  to the Kovno and Vilna
    gubernias -- except for the area around and east of "Vilno," where "Russies Blancs" predominate

  • 1929 Inst. Kartograficzny Warszawa: "Mapa rozsiedlenia ludności Litewskiej na terenie
    Republiki Litewskiej" (Map of distribution of Lithuanian population in the area of the
    Republic of Lithuania) (5.4 MB), which complements the existing map on the right: "Mapa
    rozsiedlenia ludności polskiej na terenie Republiki Litewskiej i na obszarach północnych Rzeczypospolitej
    Polskiej nazwa współczesna" (Map of distribution of Polish population in the area of the Republic of
    Lithuania and in northern areas of the Republic of Poland), Warszawa, at 1:750 000. I looked at the
    statistics on both maps for my ancestral town: Žiežmariai ("Žyžmory" on the map). Poles are said to
    comprise 10% - 20% of the population; Lithuanians 50% - 75%. So, according to these Polish-produced
    maps, Lithuanians and Poles supposedly accounted for 60% - 95% of the population. Reality check: the
    1923 Lithuanian census -- the only census in inter-war Lithuania -- counted 2,198 residents, of whom
    1,205 (55%) were Jews: a not uncommon percentage for towns in those days. Ethnicity was determined
    by primary language spoken, following the precedent set by the 1897 Russian census. The Lithuanian
    census determined that the population was 84% Lithuanian-speakers, 7.6% Yiddish-speakers, 3.2%
    Polish-speakers, 2.5% Russian/Belarussian-speakers, and 0.7% Latvian-speakers. The Polish Election
    Committee disputed those findings, saying Poles comprised 10% of the population and Lithuanians 76.4%.
    The basis for their claim: the 202,000 votes (representing about 9.5%-10% of population) cast for Polish
    political candidates in the 1923 Lithuanian elections. All-in-all, pretty weak justification for territorial
    boundary and political decisions made on the basis of "ethnicity"

  • (MapsLithuaniaInEurope): 1787 Kitchin (engraver/mapmaker/hydrographer): "EUROPE Divided into
    its EMPIRES, KINGDOMS, STATES, REPUBLICS & C...from the latest  Surveys and
    Observations" (418 KB), London, with two detail images (277 KB, 467 KB) showing the cartouche and
    Commonwealth boundaries after the First Partition
200 metų ąžuolas. 200-
year-old oak in
Mažeikiai, Lithuania,
by Aras Mileska
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1773 Robert Sayer (pubisher): "The Troelfth Cake (also the The Twelfth Cake, The Royal Cake, The Cake of
Kings, from the French: Le gâteau des rois, Polish: Kołacz królewski, Placek królewski)
is a 1773 French allegory
and satire for the First Partition of Poland. It is likely that the original title in English was intended to say "The
Twelfth Cake," alluding to the division of a King Cake
(also called a Twelfth Cake), but corrupted in later reprints.
There are at least four variants of this drawing, most common in the form of an engraving, but also as at least one
color painting; the original was likely drawn by Jean-Michel Moreau le Jeune and engraved by Nicolas Noël Le
(although another source calls them merely the authors of the most famous variant). The Troelfth Cake
shows the rulers of the three countries that participated in the partition tearing apart a map of the Polish-
Lithuanian Commonwealth. The outer figures demanding their share are Catherine II of Russia and Frederick II of
Prussia. Catherine is glaring at her former lover, the Polish king Stanisław August Poniatowski, and (in some
variants of the engraving) Frederick is pointing to Danzig
(Gdańsk) with a sword (although Prussia acquired the
territories around it, Gdańsk still remained with the Commonwealth). The inner figure on the right is the Habsburg
Emperor Joseph II. On his left is the beleaguered Stanisław August Poniatowski, who (in some variants of the
engraving) is experiencing difficulty keeping his crown on his head, and in another, has already lost it. Above the
scene is Pheme (with manifestos from the partitioning powers in the German variant). The drawing gained
notoriety in contemporary Europe; its distribution was banned in several European countries, including France.
This ban, and associated penalties, meant that many variants of this work have been anonymous.
(From Wikipedia)
The mission and intent of this site: 100% educational, 100% non-commercial
Contents ©, LLC, 2013
Images may be reproduced or transmitted for non-commercial use without permission
The first partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth: 1772
French original engraving.
From Jonathan Potter:
German version by Johannes
Esaias Nilson.
From WikiCommons
Jean-Michel Moreau.
From WikiGallery